Polar solvents include oxygen and hydrogen, but there are many others. When polar solvents have a relative static permittivity higher than 15, they can then be divided into aprotic and protic polar solvents.Continue Reading
Polar solvents have large dipole moments, or particle charges. They have bonds with very different electronegativities.
Some polar solvents include oxygen and hydrogen, but there are others classified into groups of polar protic and polar aprotic solvents. Protic solvents solvate anions via hydrogen bonding. Aprotic sovlents have large dipole moments and solvate positively charged species with their negative dipoles.
There are a number of polar apritic solvents including ethyl acetate, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, propylene carbonate and acetone. Polar aprotic solvents have large dielectric constants of 20 or higher. Because of the high polarity of these solvents, they can dissolve charged species like anions. Because of the lack of hydrogen bonding in the solvent, the anions, which are being used as nucleophiles, are more reactive.
According to Master Organic Chemistry, some polar protic solvents include formic acid, n-Butanol, ethanol, methanol, water, nitromethane and isopropanol. Polar protic solvents have high dielectric constants and high dipole moments. They possess N-H or O-H bonds and can bond with hydrogen. These solvents can be used as acids, but they are primarily used as the solvents of conjugate bases.Learn more about Chem Lab
The chemical reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium produces magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. The balanced chemical equation for this reaction is Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) produces MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g), where the letter "s" stands for solid, "g" is gas and "aq" represents an aqueous solution.Full Answer >
Calcium is a metallic element that burns when introduced to oxygen to form calcium oxide. The red and white flame burns intensely, resulting in a white powder.Full Answer >
There are several ways of separating nitrogen and oxygen. The first involves cooling the mixture down to -200 degrees Celsius and separating the gases using a process called fractional distillation. Alternatively, the gases can be cooled down to -182.95 C, the liquefaction point of oxygen. At this temperature, the oxygen in the mixture gets liquefied, while the nitrogen remains in its gaseous form, because nitrogen liquefies at -196 C.Full Answer >
Sodium chloride, a common salt, dissolves in water due to the attraction between the negative part of the water (oxygen) and the positive part of the salt (sodium). Similarly, there is also an attraction between the positively charged part of water molecules (hydrogen) and the negative chloride atoms.Full Answer >