The cell body is the largest part of the neuron that contains the nucleus. The cell body is also called the soma. Neurons, which are nerve cells, contain basic structures found in other cells, including cytoplasm, nucleolus and Golgi apparatus.
Some other organelles found in cell bodies are smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. However, neurons also have unique structures, such as dendrites, axons, synapse and myelin. Dendrites are branch-like extensions of the nerve cell while axons are long thread-like structures. The function of dendrites is to receive signals from other cells, which then pass to the cell body. Axons carry signals or information away from the cell body.
Myelin is an outer covering found on some axons, and the synapse is the junction between two nerve cells. A synapse's function is to transmit information between nerve cells.