Enzymes are organic molecular proteins composed of amino acids. At any point in time, when work is taking place within a cell, it is being accomplished by the enzymes. Their purpose is to facilitate swift chemical reactions that allow the cell to break things down or assemble things as necessary. These processes are what allow a cell to grow and reproduce.Continue Reading
When enzymes are formed, somewhere between 100 and 1,000 amino acids string together in a unique and specific order. This chain then takes on a unique shape which permits the enzyme to host particular chemical reactions. Each enzyme serves as a highly efficient catalyst for that specific reaction.
One example involves maltose. This sugar is made when a pair of glucose molecules bond together. The related enzyme, maltase, has a specific shape that allows it to undo the bond, freeing the two pieces of glucose. While the only purpose of maltase is to break up maltose molecules, maltase enables cells to do this efficiently and quickly. Other enzymes have other functions that they facilitate, but one thing that they have in common is that they either assemble molecules or break them into pieces, and there are specific enzymes for all of the chemical reactions that cells need to function properly.Learn more about Organic Chemistry
Denatured proteins are hydrolyzed, and the peptide bonds are broken down into easily digestible amino acids. Protein supplements often contain denatured proteins to increase absorption. Athletes use denatured proteins to get supplemental protein into their muscles more quickly.Full Answer >
The four types of macromolecules, or very large molecules, are nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. All are biological polymers, except for lipids that, according to the University of New Mexico, are not considered to be made of monomers and thus are not polymers. Carbon is integral to all these types of molecules, with hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous and oxygen also playing a role in several of them.Full Answer >
The subunits of enzymes are proteins, and the subunits of proteins are amino acids. The majority of enzymes are classified as proteins, but a select few consist of catalytic RNA molecules instead of protein subunits.Full Answer >
Examples of organic compounds include lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. An organic compound is any compound containing one or more atoms of carbon covalently bonded to other elements or atoms. In such cases, the carbon is normally bonded to hydrogen, nitrogen or oxygen.Full Answer >