Linus Pauling was born in 1901 in Portland, Ore. and died in 1994 at Big Sur, Calif. As of 2014, he is the only two-time recipient of an undivided Nobel Peace Prize. The 1954 prize was for his work on chemical bonding and the 1962 prize for his work, "Hiroshima Appeal," in opposition to weapons of mass destruction.Continue Reading
Pauling completed his early education and undergraduate work in Oregon. He earned his doctorate degree in 1925 at the California Institute of Technology. The recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship, Pauling studied atomic structure and quantum mechanics from 1926 to 1927 with European scholars and joined the faculty of Caltech in 1927. His early research on the faculty resulted in Pauling's rules regarding the structure of crystalline ionic structures. Pauling's work on bonding eventually led to the alpha helix and his first Nobel Prize.
In the 1950s, Pauling stood against the testing of nuclear weapons. During the Cold War, he circulated a petition that 11,000 scientists eventually signed. His activism led to the United States, Great Britain and Russia signing of a treaty in 1963, limiting the testing of nuclear weapons. He received the 1962 Nobel Prize the same day the leaders signed the treaty.
Pauling provided insight in nutrition, vitamins and molecular diseases. He also published a general chemistry textbook in 1947.Learn more about Chemistry