Human sperm cells, also called spermatozoon, contain 22 autosomes, a single Y chromosome, and a single X chromosome. Female egg cells contain 22 autosomes and two X chromosomes.
Human sex cells, whether sperm cells or eggs, contain 22 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. The Y chromosome in male sex cells that female sex cells lack contains the genes that are decisive for the development of male characteristics, such as the penis, testicles and increased production of testosterone. There is a small region in sperm cells where the X and Y chromosomes are homologous, which allows them to synapse at this site.