What Is a Human Cell With 22 Autosomes and a Y Chromosome Called?

A human cell containing 22 autosomes and either an X or Y chromosome is a sperm cell. According to Genetics Home Reference, all female egg cells contain an X chromosome along with their 22 autosomes. This arrangement means that males determine the sex of the offspring during the egg's fertilization.

If a sperm cell containing an X chromosome fertilizes an egg, the resulting zygote is XX, or female. If the sperm cell contains a Y chromosome, the resulting zygote is XY, or male. These sex-determining chromosomes are also referred to as gonosomes. The 22 pairs of autosomes and the gonosome pair make up the 46-chromosome count of all human cells.