Hot molten rock that forms underground is known as magma. During a volcanic eruption, the magma that is ejected onto the surface is referred to as lava. The solid form of magma after it has cooled down is called an igneous rock.
Beneath Earth's surface, magma occurs either as a molten or semi-liquefied combination of four primary components: thermal fluid base, crystallized minerals, dissolved gases and solid rocks. The hot liquid base, which is called the melt, causes minerals to develop crystalline structures. Nearby rocky materials are also assimilated into the melt during magma formation.
Magma is characterized by its exceedingly high temperature, which ranges between 1,292 and 2,372 degrees Fahrenheit. The properties of magma are influenced and determined by several factors, such as variations in subterranean pressure and temperature. Changes in the structures found in Earth's mantle and crust may also affect magma formation.