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What is the history of sulfur?

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People first became aware of sulfur's presence in the universe during ancient times, and Antoine Lavoisier convinced the scientific community to recognize sulfur officially as an element around 1777. Genesis in the Bible refers to sulfur as brimstone. Assyrian texts produced between 700 and 600 B.C. describe sulfur as a "product of the riverside," as there were deposits of the element near rivers. Sulfur played a role in the invention of gunpowder, which contains sulfur, carbon and potassium nitrate.

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Another sulfur reference in the Bible occurs in Psalm 11:6, which reads, "On the wicked he will rain fiery coals and burning sulfur; a scorching wind will be their lot." Although people were aware of the element since ancient times, it was not until 1809 that the scientific community was able to isolate a pure sample of sulfur. Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard, two French chemists, were responsible for producing this pure sample. The exact origin of the element's name is unknown, but it is possible that it comes from the term "sufra," which translates to "yellow" in Arabic.

All living organisms require sulfur to survive. Humans require the amino acid methionine in their diets, and its chemical structure contains sulfur. Cysteine is another amino acid containing a sulfur atom in each residue. Although sulfur is essential to life, the sulfur dioxide gas it produces upon burning is harmful to the environment and irritating to the lungs.

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