The hereditary material that is present in all cells is dioxyribonucleic acid. The primary function of DNA is the storage of data. Each cell's DNA contains the genetic information necessary for the development of an organism.
DNA is made up of two strands consisting of nucleotides, sugars and phosphate groups, joined by ester bonds. Attached to each strand are a series of four bases; the order of these bases is what codes information. Inside of the cell, DNA is grouped into formations called "chromosomes." Chromosomes are duplicated prior to cell division, allowing the hereditary information in DNA to be properly transferred.