When sodium and chlorine combine, chlorine gains an electron and sodium loses an electron. As a result, the chlorine gains a negative charge and the sodium gains a positive charge. This process is known as ionic bonding.Continue Reading
The electrons of an atom are not found in the nucleus with the protons and neutrons. Instead, they travel around the nucleus in orbitals. These orbitals are also called energy shells. An element is most stable when it has eight electrons in its outer energy shell.
The octet rule is a chemistry principle that says elements lose or gain electrons in an attempt to become more stable. Scientists say they attempt to attain noble gas configuration or become more like the nearest noble gas on the periodic table. When chlorine reacts with other elements, for example, it attempts to attain the electron configuration of argon.
Because chlorine only needs one more electron to attain noble gas configuration, it is a very reactive element. It is possible for a chlorine atom to gain two electrons, but it would require additional energy to pick up the second electron. Dr. Anne Marie Helmenstine says chlorine is more likely to participate in reactions where it gains one electron.Learn more about Atoms & Molecules
Salt is an ionic compound made up of one atom of chlorine for each atom of sodium. Its chemical formula is NaCl, and it’s also known as sodium chloride.Full Answer >
Salt crystals are formed when sodium and chlorine bond together via a shared electron and these sodium and chlorine molecules bond with other sodium and chlorine molecules. Water dissolves the connection between the sodium and chlorine atoms, but when the water evaporates, the connection can re-establish itself.Full Answer >
Atoms combine by forming chemical bonds, the majority of which fall into three major categories: ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds. The bonding that occurs is the result of the electrostatic attractive force that exists between opposite charges. The bonds that form between atoms can also be classified as the stronger primary bonds or the weaker secondary bonds.Full Answer >
When an atom loses an electron, it becomes an ion. The loss of the electron leaves the atom with an additional positive charge and it becomes known as a cation.Full Answer >