The US National Institute of Standards and Technology provides guidelines for lab calibration on its website, NIST.gov. These pages, titled Calibration Procedures: Good Laboratory Practices, Calibration Procedures: Standard Operating Procedures and Calibration Procedures: Good Measurement Practices, describe practices for calibrating specific instruments and applying different measurement procedures.
The US Food and Drug Administration also provides field science and laboratory calibration guidelines on its website, FDA.gov. The procedures apply specifically to instruments and processes used by the FDA but can be applied to other labs as well.
Researchers can also find guides for more specific areas of study at Books.Google.com, such as the "Laboratory Guide for Conducting Soil Tests and Plant Analysis" by J. Benton Jones Jr.