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What is a group of cells that form from an original single cell?

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Cells arising from a single progenitor cell are called daughter cells or clones. These terms apply only to cells arising through binary fission in prokaryotes or mitosis in eukaryotic cells. In contrast, sperm and eggs, collectively called gametes, arise from a progenitor cell through a distinct process called meiosis.

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Bacteria and eukaryotic cells reproduce asexually. They give rise to cellular offspring containing the same genetic material as the parent cell as well as the same number of chromosomes. Gametes arising by meiosis differ from their progenitor cells in two major ways. Firstly, cross over events mix and match parts of homologous chromosomes to create novel combinations of genes in the daughter cells. Secondly, the number of chromosomes is cut in half, yielding haploid rather than diploid gametes.

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