A golgi apparatus, or golgi complex, is the main organelle responsible for mediating the transportation of protein and fat within the cell, according to Scitable, a learning website curated by Nature. In addition to transportation, it also is responsible for manufacturing and storing other cellular products within the cell, which mostly come from the endoplasmic reticulum.
According to Scitable, the golgi apparatus is usually depicted as an organelle resembling a stack of pita bread. Each stack, or compartment, is supposed to resemble the flat membrane of the golgi apparatus known as the cisternae, which vary in number and shape. Each golgi apparatus has three major cistern regions: cis, medial and trans. On occasion, some golgi compartments have additional sections called the cis Golgi network and the trans Golgi network, which each correspond with an outer region of the apparatus.
Molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum enter the golgi apparatus from the side facing the ER and exit on the opposite of the end facing the plasma membrane. As the protein molecules make their way through the cisternae, they are modified and packaged for transportation to other locations within the cell. Each cisternae contain enzymes, which modify the proteins by adding sulphate and phosphate groups, or removing and adding sugars.