Geologists study the Earth and its physical formations and materials. This includes the layers of the earth, surface features like mountains and volcanoes and historical materials like rocks and fossils.
This branch of geology focuses on natural processes like earthquakes, landslides, floods and volcanoes. By learning about these processes, geologists can create maps that indicate where these disasters are likely to happen. These maps are useful when developers plan to build communities in potentially dangerous areas.
Oil, water and metals are valuable natural resources drawn from the earth. Geologists locate these resources and develop ways to obtain them. They plan the construction of mines and wells.
The study of historical geology focuses on topics like climate and fossil history. In terms of climate, geologists assess data about climate changes over time and try to determine future climate changes.