Genes, which are segments of DNA acids, are found within the nuclei of cells in living organisms. Genes add specific proteins to chromosomes, which contain the basic genetic code for life. They contain the information needed to build the cells of a living organism and pass traits to offspring. Genes correspond to certain traits, such as number of limbs, blood type, eye color and risk for certain diseases.Continue Reading
Most human cells contain 46 chromosomes, although sperm and eggs contain only 23 chromosomes. The fetus resulting from the union of a sperm and egg inherits half its chromosomes from each parent. Two chromosomes dictate the gender of an individual; girls inherit two X chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father. Boys inherit an X chromosome from their mothers and a Y chromosome from their fathers. The total number of genes in a living organism or cell is called its genome.
Gregor Mendel, a 19th century Austrian monk who is considered to be the father of genetics, first described the process of genetic trait inheritance. He studied pea plants to determine how they inherited traits and discovered that parents pass on traits to offspring in particular patterns. The word "gene" comes from a Greek word that means "birth."Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
Gene therapy is a treatment that revolves around altering the genes inside cells to stop disease, according to Mayo Clinic. The pros include helping people fight disease or even cure their disease, while some cons are unwanted immune reactions, infections, tumors and damaging healthy cells.Full Answer >
In terms of the human genome, the chromosome 7 pair represents more than 5 percent of all DNA and is estimated to contain up to 1,000 genes that are responsible for the production of proteins with cells, according to Genetics Home Reference. Researchers believe that genes on chromosome 7 play an important role in cellular division and growth. Chromosome 7 is also important because of the role it plays in many human diseases.Full Answer >
MRNA degradation is one of the most important mechanisms living cells use to regulate the expression of genes by the machinery of the cell. By selectively degrading messenger RNA, cells prevent the inappropriate, and potentially disastrous, expression of certain genes.Full Answer >
All organisms are made up of cells, have different levels of organization, use energy, respond to and adapt to their environments, grow and reproduce. If something does not exhibit each of these characteristics, it is technically not living.Full Answer >