During galvanization, metal is coated with molten zinc, which forms a layer that is resistant to rust. Additionally, a thin layer of a zinc and steel alloy is formed, which provides rust resistance even if the outer zinc layer is pierced.
Galvanization is a simple process that involves dipping an entire piece of metal, usually iron or a type of steel, into a heated container of zinc. The zinc is in molten form, and is usually kept above 450 degrees Celsius. Steel is a versatile material used in many construction processes, but like many metals, it often rusts when exposed to moisture. Zinc has a different set of properties, but most importantly it is corrosion resistant.