What Are the Functions of Testes and Ovaries?

The testes produce testosterone in men, help maintain muscle and bone mass, help produce sperm and support the sex drive, according to Hormone Health Network. Found in women, the ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone and help to maintain healthy menstrual cycles.

Located in the scrotum, the testes are outside of the body to keep temperatures lower, says Better Health Channel. The testes make sperm, which requires a slightly lower body temperature to thrive. The testes are part of the male reproductive system, producing the androgen testosterone that helps the penis grow and leads to facial and body hair as well as the deepening of the voice.

The ovaries secrete hormones responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle, says Better Health Channel. As part of the female reproductive system, the ovaries produce the hormone estrogen to thicken the lining of the uterus, or endometrium.

At a mid-point in the menstrual cycle, the ovaries release an egg, explains Better Health Channel. If the egg is unfertilized, the ovaries do not produce the hormone progesterone in adequate supply, and the endometrium begins to be expelled from the body. If the egg is fertilized, it lodges in the endometrium. Unlike men, who produce sperm continuously throughout their lives, women are born with their entire egg supply.