Different types of topoisomerases have different functions and these include accessing DNA, recombination process strand breakage, removing DNA supercoils, chromosome condensation and detangling intertwined DNA. All forms of topoisomerases are a type of enzyme responsible for DNA supercoiling regulation.Continue Reading
Topoisomerases are a common focus when it comes to disease treatment. There are two types of antibiotic medications, including coumarins and quinolones, which take advantage of topoisomerase II and IV. These antibiotics inhibit the bacteria's ability to replicate DNA, making them useful for bacterial diseases, such as tuberculosis, pneumonia and malaria.
Eukaryotic topoisomerase types I and II are helpful in the development of various anti-cancer medications. Drugs that inhibit type I cause single-strand DNA breaks, resulting in replication-mediated damage. This is beneficial because it allows for easier and more efficient repair of the DNA in normal cells compared to cancer cells. This type is also beneficial in gene inactivation. Drugs that inhibit type II are some of the most common anti-cancer medications because they cause double strand DNA breaks. Some medications target both types of topoisomerase, which helps to make the anti-cancer effects much stronger and allows the drugs to have multiple positive effects. In some cases, this allows for a hybrid drug with a specific target.Learn more about Science
Transcription is the biological process where information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA. This transcribed DNA message or RNA transcript produces proteins.Full Answer >
Transcribed RNA is separated from a single strand of DNA it used as a template, then cut into pieces to be translated into proteins, while DNA that forms during DNA replication remains bound to the single strand to become a new, full DNA molecule with a double strand. RNA transcription and DNA replication begin in very similar ways.Full Answer >
RNA polymerase copies the template strand of DNA and creates a complementary strand of messenger RNA. The newly created RNA strand serves as the template for creating a protein, so RNA polymerase is an essential component in the process of making proteins from the information encoded in genes.Full Answer >
Once the DNA is separated into two strands, an RNA primer is laid down to give the new strand a place to build from so that the new enzymes can mate up to the exposed bases of the DNA and continue to build until the strand is complete. The enzymes, specifically nucleotide triphosphate, must be complimentary for this to occur, which means that the A pairs with T and G with C. The base strand always dictates the replication order of the DNA strand.Full Answer >