The function of dorsal root ganglia is to transmit sensory information from the body's periphery to the spinal cord, explains the Department of Cell Biology at Yale University. A dorsal root ganglion consists of cell bodies of sensory neurons.
A ganglion is a clump of nerve tissue outside of the central nervous system, according to Dictionary.com. The body's periphery is the area of the body that consists of nerve endings. An axon is a branch extending from a neuron that transmits information away from the cell body.
A long axon extends from the neurons within the dorsal root ganglion to the periphery, and another long axon extends from the neurons within the dorsal root ganglion to the spinal cord's grey matter, notes the Department of Cell Biology at Yale University. Fibers reaching the periphery exit the ganglion through the spinal nerve, and fibers reaching the spinal cord exit through the dorsal root.
It takes a dorsal root ganglion on each side of the body, right and left, at one segmental level to supply information for both sides of the body, explains the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. The spinal nerve's dorsal root ganglion influences low-back pain and radicular symptoms, according to the American Journal of Neuroradiology.