The main function of the circumflex artery is to supply oxygenated blood to different parts of the heart, says Healthline. The regions of the heart it provides with blood vary from person to person although it always supplies blood to the papillary muscle and part of the left ventricle.
In some people, the circumflex artery supplies blood to the sinuatrial nodal artery, states Healthline. It's the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery, and it's divided into smaller artery systems.
According to eMedicineHealth, the circumflex artery passes behind the heart between the left atrium and left ventricle and delivers blood to the lateral wall of the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta, the main artery of the body. Near the heart, there are two main coronary arteries that branch off of the aorta. The left main coronary artery branches into the circumflex artery and the left anterior descending artery, which provides blood to the interventricular septum and the left ventricle’s anterior wall and anterolateral wall. The right coronary artery gives blood to the right ventricle and the left ventricle’s inferior wall and posterior. These coronary arteries are important as they provide sufficient oxygen-rich blood needed by the heart to pump effectively. When the heart fails to get enough oxygenated blood, heart failure occurs due to a damaged heart.