The function of bacterial endospores, according to Cornell University, is to allow the survival of bacteria's cell lines through harsh conditions that would kill a normal member of the species. These conditions include starvation, ultraviolet light, dessication and chemical damage. The endospore is an unusually small and largely dehydrated bacterium with a germ cell wall, surrounded by further walls of protein and peptidoglycan that protect it.Continue Reading
The process of creating an endospore involves a unique kind of cell division. The mother cell replicates its DNA and undergoes cytokinesis, but one of the daughter cells is much smaller than the other. The larger daughter cell then envelops the smaller daughter cell, which becomes a forespore within the larger cell. The larger cell forms the walls of peptidoglycan and protein around the smaller cell, then lyses, leaving only the endospore behind to weather whatever hostile conditions prompted its creation.
Once more favorable conditions begin, the endospore transforms its peptidoglycan shell into a regular cell wall and takes in water to become a normal member of its species. While most species of bacteria that form endospores do so in response to unusual environmental conditions, others form endospores regularly, even on a daily basis, due to day and night conditions or other regular occurrences in their environments.Learn more about Biology
Adaptation is a genetically encoded product of natural selection that enables a species to develop a functional feature that helps to ensure its survival. As a species' environment changes in time, natural selection works with a population's genetic variability to produce offspring with differing characteristics. Those offspring possessing the characteristics best suited for survival are the ones that will go on to produce similar offspring, while those less-suited to survival eventually die off.Full Answer >
A functional adaptation is a structure or behavior that has arisen sometime in the evolutionary history of a species to aid in that species', or its predecessors', survival. A waterproof eggshell, for example, is a functional adaptation that arose among reptiles in response to the need to lay eggs in dry, dessicating environments where permeable eggshells would have dried out.Full Answer >
The four steps or conditions necessary for natural selection to occur are that more organisms are born than can survive, characteristics vary within a species, variations are inherited, and differences in reproduction and survival are due to variations. All four of these conditions must occur for natural selection to happen.Full Answer >
A susceptible host is a member of a species population who is at risk of becoming infected with a certain disease due to a variety of reasons. Susceptible hosts differ from the general population because they are far more likely to get infectious diseases than the general population.Full Answer >