Fracking is a controversial topic with many negative qualities, such as requiringÂ large quantities ofÂ water in order to work, releasing potentially carcinogenic chemicals from the ground into the surrounding groundwater and the potential for earth tremors, as well as infrastructure degradation and air pollution impact. For these reasons, many people advocate against the use of fracking for energy demands,Â evenÂ though fracking has the ability to provide large amounts of energy.
The process of fracking involves drilling through the ground and pushing a high-pressure water mixture at rock in order to free the gas found inside of the rock. The high pressure throws sand, water and chemicals at the rock at the same time. The fracking process is completed horizontally so that the gas flows out into a well and can be stored for later use.
The reason that the process is called "fracking" is because it is short for the full term "hydraulic fracturing," which comes from the pushed water that splits or fractures the rock. The environmental concerns are many, but companies are still interested in obtaining energy through fracking as it allows countries that were once devoid of their own energy to start domestic oil production. Fracking is typically performed on shale rock.