The formula for calculating thermal energy is Q = mcΔT, where "Q" represents the thermal energy, "m" indicates the substance's mass, "c" denotes the specific heat and "ΔT" signifies the temperature difference. Thermal energy is typically measured in Joules, commonly abbreviated as "J."
Thermal energy, also referred to as internal energy, pertains to the energy that drives the constant and random movement of atoms or molecules contained in a substance or system. Based on its formula, it forms a direct correlation with the mass of the substance, specific heat and difference in temperature. The standard units for these physical quantities are given in kilograms for mass, Joules per kilogram degree Celsius for specific heat and degree Celsius for temperature.