Fern leaves are called fronds. Ferns are vascular plants that are non-flowering and do not contain seeds. The method in which this plant reproduces is through spore dispersal.
Fern leaves grow from a rhizome. Fern leaves are fan-shaped and also play an important role in reproduction. The production of spores occurs in structures called sporangia. These structures are found on the surface of the fronds, usually on the underside of the leaf. When the sporangia or spore casings dry out, the dispersal of spores occurs into the atmosphere.
Certain fern species date back nearly 400 million years. There are about 12,000 fern species. Ferns require water and shady areas to grow.