Shared features in plants, fungi and prokaryotes include cells, cellular membranes and asexual reproduction. Bacteria and the archaea compose the prokaryotes. Plants and fungi make up the eukaryotes, along with animals and protists.
Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms with no nuclei nor organelles. Their genetic material consists of rings of DNA residing in the cell body. Eukaryotes range from unicellular bacteria to the multi-cellular higher animals. Their cells contain a nucleus holding DNA in the form of chromosomes. Eukaryotes also have organelles, or structures specialized for cellular activities. All eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria, responsible for extracting energy from carbohydrates. Plant cells contain chloroplasts, which use the energy of sunlight to produce carbohydrates. DNA fingerprinting offers proof that organelles evolved from prokaryotes assimilated into eukaryotic cells.