The distance a bullet travels is entirely dependent on the gun from which it is fired. The muzzle velocity and maximum range of a specific weapon both need to be taken into account in order to calculate how far a bullet travels after being fired.
Accuracy and bullet speed decrease as the bullet travels. Most common handguns fire a bullet as far as a mile before the bullet's speed falters and gravity causes it to hit the ground. High-powered rifles that can be legally purchased in the United States can fire bullets at a distance between 3 to 5 miles.