Sir Isaac Newton was born on Christmas Day in 1642 in Woolsthorpe, England. Newton developed the three laws of motion, the law of universal gravitation, the method of infinitesimal calculus and a new theory of light and color.
During the Scientific Revolution, Newton changed the world of physical science by integrating the work of great thinkers such as Copernicus, Kepler, Descartes and Galileo into new theories. In addition to his scientific and mathematical advances, Newton served as chair of mathematics at Cambridge University for 33 years. He became England's master of the Mint in 1699, and he was president of the Royal Society for 24 years. In 1705 he was knighted by Queen Anne of England. He died on March 31, 1727.