The comet people are most likely to know by name, and therefore perhaps the most famous, is Halley's Comet. This comet can be seen from Earth's about every 75 years, with its next predicted return in 2061.
Halley's Comet is named after Edmund Halley, who first concluded that the sightings of three comets over a 151-year period were actually the periodic return of the same comet and correctly forecast its next return. The first picture of Halley's comet was taken in 1910, and spacecraft were deployed to look at it more closely when it passed by in 1986. The annual Orionid and the Eta Aquarids meteor showers contain pieces of Halley's Comet.