The factors that affect the rate of osmosis are temperature, surface area, difference in water potential, pressure, concentration gradient and amount of light. These factors are affected by both the solvent, which is usually water, as well as the equipment used and semipermeable membrane.
Osmosis is a process where a solvent, used to dissolve a solute, migrates through a semipermeable membrane from a low-concentration side to a high-concentration side, in terms of the solute concentration. A semi-permeable membrane does not allow the solute to pass through, only the solvent. Since the amount of solute on each side is uneven, the solvent flows through the membrane to even the concentration on both sides.