Thermodynamics

A:

Metals conduct heat well for two reasons: metal ions pack very closely together in their molecular lattice, and electrons drifting through the metal carry kinetic energy around the lattice. The result is a quick elevation in particle motion that is expressed through heat energy. This conductivity is one reason why one rarely sees metal playground equipment anymore — although the slides go a lot faster than plastic ones, sitting on a slide on a hot summer afternoon is often quite painful.

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  • What materials are good conductors of heat?

    Q: What materials are good conductors of heat?

    A: Many metals, like silver, copper, gold and aluminum, are good thermal conductors. Thermal conductors are materials that heat passes through easily. Conduction, or the transfer of heat, can take place within a single material or between two objects.
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  • How does a fuel pump work?

    Q: How does a fuel pump work?

    A: A fuel pump pulls gasoline from the tank, guiding it along a pipe to the carburetor. Some fuel pumps are electric, mounted near or in the fuel tank, while others operate mechanically in concert with the engine. Either way, the fuel pump is what gets the gasoline where it needs to go.
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  • Which metal conducts heat the fastest?

    Q: Which metal conducts heat the fastest?

    A: Silver is the metal that conducts heat the fastest. The thermal conductivity of silver is 420 W/ (m• K) or watts per meter degrees of Kelvin. Thermal conductivity measures the ability of heat or thermal energy to move through materials.
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  • What is a candle flame made up of?

    Q: What is a candle flame made up of?

    A: While a flame is the gaseous portion of a fire, a candle flame contains millions of diamond nanoparticles. Approximately 1.5 million diamond nanoparticles are created every second before converting into carbon dioxide. All four forms of carbon are present within a candle flame: elemental carbon, graphite, white carbon and diamond.
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  • What is the hottest part of the day?

    Q: What is the hottest part of the day?

    A: According to the National Satellite and Information Service, the hottest time of the day is generally around midafternoon. The exact time of the day that it is the hottest depends on where a person lives and what time of the year it is.
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  • Which freezes faster: freshwater or saltwater?

    Q: Which freezes faster: freshwater or saltwater?

    A: Freshwater freezes faster that saltwater, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Freshwater freezes at 32 F, while saltwater freezes at a slightly lower temperature, 28.4 F.
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  • Why is boiling a cooling process?

    Q: Why is boiling a cooling process?

    A: Boiling can be considered as a cooling process because as a liquid reaches its critical temperature, heat escapes through rapid evaporation. Essentially, boiling happens when liquids turn into gases, forcing excess heat out of the liquid.
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  • At what temperature does duct tape melt?

    Q: At what temperature does duct tape melt?

    A: Industry safety standards require duct tape to be nonflammable and safe to use in temperatures up to 200 degrees Fahrenheit. Adhesive endurance is reduced in temperatures over 180 degrees Fahrenheit.
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  • Can you tell what temperature a fire is by its color?

    Q: Can you tell what temperature a fire is by its color?

    A: The temperature of a flame from a known material can be estimated based on the flame's color. However, flame color is also affected by the material being burnt and differs based on its chemical properties in addition to its temperature.
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  • Why does heat rise?

    Q: Why does heat rise?

    A: Hot air rises because when a substance is hot, its molecules are farther apart, which makes the hot air less dense and, therefore, lighter than cooler air. Air is generally warmer nearer the surface of the Earth because of the sun's radiating heat. When hot air rises, it starts to get cooler and eventually it sinks back down to the surface.
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  • How does an oil heater work?

    Q: How does an oil heater work?

    A: According to About.com expert Timothy Thiele, oil heaters are electric appliances that warm the surrounding air by passing hot oil through a series of metal tubes. Oil is the ideal filling for space heaters because it heats quickly and gets extremely hot without boiling. As the heater runs, the hot oil heats its metal tubing, which has poor heat retention and quickly releases the heat into the air.
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  • Why are metals such good conductors of heat?

    Q: Why are metals such good conductors of heat?

    A: Metals conduct heat well for two reasons: metal ions pack very closely together in their molecular lattice, and electrons drifting through the metal carry kinetic energy around the lattice. The result is a quick elevation in particle motion that is expressed through heat energy. This conductivity is one reason why one rarely sees metal playground equipment anymore — although the slides go a lot faster than plastic ones, sitting on a slide on a hot summer afternoon is often quite painful.
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  • Why do flames go upwards?

    Q: Why do flames go upwards?

    A: Visible flames are hot gases emitting light, which naturally rises because it is hotter (and therefore less dense) than the air around it. These hot gases are byproducts of the chemical reaction of combustion, or burning.
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  • How are temperature and thermal energy different?

    Q: How are temperature and thermal energy different?

    A: The difference between temperature and thermal energy is that temperature measures the average kinetic speed of molecules and thermal energy is the total kinetic energy of all particles in a given substance. In other words, temperature measures the average speed of movement, and thermal energy measures the mass of a substance. Both temperature and thermal energy are made by the movement of particles.
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  • What is an example of convection?

    Q: What is an example of convection?

    A: Convection occurs when a cold pot of water is placed on a stove burner that transfers heat to the bottom of the pan. As the water in the pan warms, it begins to bubble on the surface. Generally, convection transfers heat from a warm area to a cooler one.
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  • Q: What temperature is lukewarm?

    A: If the term lukewarm is in reference to a liquid like milk or water for a recipe, then this temperature is anywhere between 98 to 105 degrees Fahrenheit. This temperature also is comparable to combining one part of water that is at room temperature with two parts of boiling water. When preparing milk formula, lukewarm is usually the ideal temperature range.
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  • Q: What kinds of friction are there?

    A: There are four different types of friction: static, kinetic, rolling and fluid. Each of these involves relative motion between two bodies, with the exception of static friction, which takes place even when relative motion between the two bodies is absent.
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  • Q: Why is energy required for the boiling process?

    A: Energy is required to boil a liquid in order to give the molecules enough energy to overcome intermolecular attraction forces. While boiling, the highest energy liquid molecules are able to escape the liquid and enter the gas phase.
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  • Q: What is thermal energy used for?

    A: Thermal energy is used primarily for heating and cooling buildings and for certain industrial processes. Wood and pellet stoves are commonly used to heat homes. Certain factories can use thermal energy to create steam to run their production sites. This is known as biomass thermal energy.
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  • Which metal has the lowest melting point?

    Q: Which metal has the lowest melting point?

    A: Among the elements grouped as metals, mercury has the lowest melting point at minus 38.83 degrees Celsius. Mercury has a very wide temperature range in its liquid state, according to Jefferson Lab, with a boiling point of 356.73 degrees Celsius.
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  • How hot is the tip of a lit cigarette?

    Q: How hot is the tip of a lit cigarette?

    A: The temperature of the tip of a lit cigarette when smoldering is close to 1100 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature of the tip during a two-second puff can be more than 1600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cigarette tip temperatures are significantly higher than gasoline's autoignition threshold of 495 degrees Fahrenheit.
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