States of Matter

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Glass can be used to store things in the freezer. Glass containers can also be put in the freezer temporarily, to make a drink extra cold.

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  • At what temperature does glass melt?

    Q: At what temperature does glass melt?

    A: Most glass takes on a more fluid consistency at temperatures of around 1350 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature, glass has the consistency of honey or syrup.
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  • What are the characteristics of matter?

    Q: What are the characteristics of matter?

    A: All physical matter has mass, weight, volume and density. Matter also has certain characteristics restricted only to specific physical states. Physical matter is made up of atoms, minuscule particles that form physical structures via their electrically charged attraction to one another.
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  • What happens when water freezes?

    Q: What happens when water freezes?

    A: When water freezes, the molecules slow down and assume a fixed position, although not quite in the way that one might think. Water is made of molecules with two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom, but those molecules don't just stop moving as units. One would think they would all stop, because the Third Law of Thermodynamics says that entropy drops with temperature, getting close to zero. However, ice does not show that property, which is one reason why ice is the only solid less dense than its liquid state.
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  • How much does water expand when it freezes?

    Q: How much does water expand when it freezes?

    A: Water expands by a factor of 112, or roughly 9 percent, when it freezes. Water, unlike most other liquids, forms stronger hydrogen bonds as temperatures drop. This leads to a crystal lattice structure with voids left between molecules. As the molecules arrange themselves in this manner, the substance expands and becomes less dense.
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  • What is it called when a gas turns into a liquid?

    Q: What is it called when a gas turns into a liquid?

    A: Condensation is the name of the process through which gas turns into a liquid. Three common states of matter exist: solids, liquids and gases. Matter, however, can change its state with the addition or subtraction of energy. The energy is usually in the form of heat.
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  • What happens in a condensation reaction?

    Q: What happens in a condensation reaction?

    A: In a condensation reaction, two reactants react to form water or ammonia and one other byproduct. As long as either water or ammonia is formed and is the only byproduct, a reaction is considered a condensation reaction. A condensation reaction is not to be confused with the process called condensation, where water vapor turns to liquid after losing heat.
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  • At what temperature does ice melt?

    Q: At what temperature does ice melt?

    A: Ice begins to melt when its surroundings rise above its freezing point, that being 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius). Depending on the salt content and the presence of other substances, that freezing point may be an even lower temperature.
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  • What is the boiling point of milk?

    Q: What is the boiling point of milk?

    A: The additional molecules in milk keep its boiling point slightly higher than water, which boils at 100 degrees Celsius or 212 degrees Fahrenheit. The chemical composition of milk dictates the boiling point and so there is no standard boiling point.
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  • Can a solid turn into a gas?

    Q: Can a solid turn into a gas?

    A: A solid can turn directly into a gas through a process called sublimation. In this instance, the solid vaporizes without going through the intermediary liquid stage. For example, in the water cycle, this would involve snow or ice turning directly into water vapor without going through the melting process. The opposite process, in which vapor changes into ice, is known as deposition.
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  • What happens when water boils?

    Q: What happens when water boils?

    A: Water boils when the thermal energy in the water, which is a type of kinetic energy which causes the water molecules to move around, exceeds the strength of the hydrogen bonds between the molecules, causing them to separate from the other molecules. This breaking of bonds between water molecules consumes any additional thermal energy added, so that water at boiling temperature does not increase in temperature until the phase change is complete. In normal conditions, much of the water vapor almost immediately turns to steam, which is actually composed of droplets of liquid water because it has left the source of heat.
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  • How does gas become a liquid?

    Q: How does gas become a liquid?

    A: The process of a gas changing to a liquid is called condensation, and for condensation to take place, the environment has to reach maximum vapor pressure, generally through a lowering of temperature in the case of the water cycle. Because pressure varies inversely with temperature, as temperature decreases, pressure goes up, causing the gas molecules to move with progressively less kinetic energy. Eventually, liquid vapor and droplets form, and the gas begins to condense.
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  • What is the melting point of glass?

    Q: What is the melting point of glass?

    A: The melting point of glass varies greatly according to what type of glass is being melted, but typically ranges from 2,597 to 2,912 degrees Fahrenheit. The variance in melting temperatures is caused by the mix of materials used initially to create the glass.
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  • What is the melting point of rubber?

    Q: What is the melting point of rubber?

    A: Rubber begins to melt at approximately 180 degrees Celsius. At low temperatures, around 5 C to 6 C, there is a risk that rubber hardens because of crystallization. The optimum temperature for rubber is 20 C.
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  • What is the fifth state of matter?

    Q: What is the fifth state of matter?

    A: The fifth state of matter is Bose-Einstein condensation, which is a gaseous superfluid formed by atoms that have been cooled to almost absolute zero. The theory was proposed by Satyndra Bose and Albert Einstein in the 1920s.
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  • What happens when water vapor cools?

    Q: What happens when water vapor cools?

    A: When water vapor cools, it condenses. It is a phase change where water changes from a gas to a liquid. Condensation is the opposite of evaporation.
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  • How long does it take to freeze a gallon of water?

    Q: How long does it take to freeze a gallon of water?

    A: The time it takes to freeze a gallon of water varies from minutes to several hours. The time it takes is based on several factors including temperature and the pureness of the water.
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  • What is the hottest thing in the world?

    Q: What is the hottest thing in the world?

    A: In 2006, scientists at Sandia Labs recorded temperatures of 3.6 billion degrees Fahrenheit, or two billion degrees Kelvin, within a super-heated gas called plasma. The temperatures were reached with the aid of the Z machine, which is an x-ray generator.
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  • How does matter change from one state to another?

    Q: How does matter change from one state to another?

    A: An element's state changes depending on its temperature and the pressure exerted on it. Heating or cooling an element can cause it to change states. Adding or removing pressure can do so as well.
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  • What is the difference between steam and water vapor?

    Q: What is the difference between steam and water vapor?

    A: The difference between steam and water vapor is that water vapor is typically the same temperature as the air that is present while steam is above the boiling point of water. The chemical composition of water and steam are identical.
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  • In what two ways is heat involved in chemical change?

    Q: In what two ways is heat involved in chemical change?

    A: Heat is involved in chemical change in two ways; chemical changes either result in heat being added to or removed from an object, and chemical changes require a certain amount of heat before they can take place. Both of these two mechanisms of chemical change involve the heat characteristics of the involved substance or substances and the environment in which the chemical change is taking place.
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  • What is the density of oil?

    Q: What is the density of oil?

    A: The density of oil depends on the type of oil and varies between 0.8 to 0.96 grams per centimeter cubed. Fuel oil is commonly used in engines and industrial furnaces. It is also called heating oil and has a density of 0.81 grams per centimeter cubed.
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