Solutions & Mixtures

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According to Mental Floss, the luminescence inside glow sticks comes from a chemical reaction between two substances that releases energy as light. The exact chemical makeup of a glow stick can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, but most use hydrogen peroxide and a chemical called a diphenyl oxalate ester. When the two liquids mix inside the glow stick, they produce a light colored by a phosphorescent dye.

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  • What Is an Acceptable Range of TDS in Drinking Water?

    Q: What Is an Acceptable Range of TDS in Drinking Water?

    A: The Environmental Protection Agency establishes a recommended range of TDS in drinking water at 500 parts per million or lower. The total dissolved solids represent the accumulated content of organic and inorganic substances contained in water.
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  • What Are Examples of Insoluble Substances?

    Q: What Are Examples of Insoluble Substances?

    A: Examples of insoluble substances are sand, plastic, wood, metal, glass and cloth. These substances never dissolve in water or any other solvent at room temperature and pressure. Sugars and inorganic salts are also examples of insoluble substances. Insoluble substances cannot be extracted from a solution.
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  • What Is the Chemical Formula of Kerosene?

    Q: What Is the Chemical Formula of Kerosene?

    A: Kerosene is a mixture of hydrocarbons and does not have a single chemical formula. The hydrocarbons in the mixture include compounds with 10 to 16 carbon atoms in both straight chain and branched formations.
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  • Does Oil Conduct Electricity?

    Q: Does Oil Conduct Electricity?

    A: Oils conduct electricity minimally under normal conditions, which makes them useful as insulators. The extent of electrical conductivity depends on the concentration of impurities. The presence of salts and other substances generally increases the electrical conductivity of oil.
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  • How Do You Neutralize Caustic Soda?

    Q: How Do You Neutralize Caustic Soda?

    A: Caustic soda is an inorganic compound that is a metallic base neutralized by acidic substances. The chemical name for caustic soda is sodium hydroxide, and it has the chemical formula NaOH. It is also known as lye.
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  • Why Do Ionic Compounds Dissolve in Water?

    Q: Why Do Ionic Compounds Dissolve in Water?

    A: Ionic compounds dissolve in water because the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the H2O molecules have partial charges that attract the ions in the solid compound, causing it to dissociate into separated ions. Differences in electronegativity account for the partial positive charge carried by water's hydrogen atoms and the partial negative charge of its oxygen atoms. What is happening to the ionic compound when it dissolves is a separation of its ions from their preexisting solid crystal lattice structure into unattached ions that are free to move about in the solution.
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  • How Do You Identify Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Mixtures?

    Q: How Do You Identify Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Mixtures?

    A: Heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures are identified by the level at which the mixtures blend together. Visible indications of different components within a mixture denote a heterogeneous mixture, while a uniform, single-component appearance indicates a homogeneous mixture.
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  • What Is the Difference Between a Pure Substance and a Mixture?

    Q: What Is the Difference Between a Pure Substance and a Mixture?

    A: A pure substance contains only one kind of molecule, and a mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances. Distilled water, aluminum foil and table sugar are each made from only one type of particle. However, salt water is a mixture because it contains salt as well as water.
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  • What Are Some Examples of Viscous Liquids?

    Q: What Are Some Examples of Viscous Liquids?

    A: Some examples of highly viscous liquids are oils, honey, glycerin, tar and sulfuric acid. Viscosity is the ability of substances, especially fluids, to resist flow. It can also be referred to as the measure of the ability of a liquid to resist being deformed by extensional stress.
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  • Is Bleach Flammable?

    Q: Is Bleach Flammable?

    A: Bleach, which is essentially chlorine dissolved in water, is not a flammable substance on its own. If mixed with certain materials such as ammonia or acetylene, it can become unstable, forming explosive compounds or reactions.
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  • What Are Bricks Made Of?

    Q: What Are Bricks Made Of?

    A: Bricks are made with the two most abundant materials on Earth: clay and shale. These two materials are then put in a furnace, called a kiln, and heated to 2,000°F (approximately 1,100°C). By a chemical process (vitrification), the materials fuse together and form bricks.
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  • What Does "solute" Mean in Science?

    Q: What Does "solute" Mean in Science?

    A: A solute is the smaller part of a solution, which in many cases is said to have been dissolved by the solvent. A solution is any mixture that is homogeneous at a molecular level, which means that any given volume of the solution has about the same proportion of type of molecule in the overall solution as the overall solution.
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  • What Are Examples of Solubility?

    Q: What Are Examples of Solubility?

    A: An example of solubility is the fact that sugar is very soluble in water. However, in another liquid, such as methyl alcohol, it is only somewhat soluble.
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  • What Is a Filtrate in Chemistry?

    Q: What Is a Filtrate in Chemistry?

    A: In chemistry, a filtrate is a liquid that has passed through the filtration process. In this process, liquid is strained. Bigger particles get stuck in the strainer, while smaller particles and liquid pass through, becoming filtrate.
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  • Does Salt Dissolve Faster in Hot or Cold Water?

    Q: Does Salt Dissolve Faster in Hot or Cold Water?

    A: An equal amount of salt in hot and cold water dissolves at about the same speed. However, the same amount of sugar added into hot and cold water dissolves faster in the hot water than in the cold water.
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  • What Happens When You Mix Bleach and Ammonia?

    Q: What Happens When You Mix Bleach and Ammonia?

    A: Mixing bleach and ammonia produces toxic gases called chloramines that can damage the upper respiratory tract and irritate the eyes, throat and nose. Symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, watery eyes and nausea. Prolonged exposure to chloramines in an enclosed space can cause death, particularly if a person has any pre-existing respiratory conditions.
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  • Why Are Oil and Water Immiscible?

    Q: Why Are Oil and Water Immiscible?

    A: Water and oil do not mix because of their molecular properties. On one hand, water has a slight positive charge and is attracted to atoms and molecules with a negative charge. Oil is an electrically neutral substance and has no affinity for water. Water molecules also have high surface tension and are strongly attracted to each other. A surface-active intermediary is necessary for water and oil to mix.
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  • How Does Filtration Work?

    Q: How Does Filtration Work?

    A: Filtration is a method of separating solid impurities from liquid by allowing the liquid to pass through a filter, which usually consists in a porous material such as cotton wool, cloth, paper, glass wool or asbestos. The filter traps solid particles, and the size of its pores or holes determines which particles pass through. Water flows through the material at a low speed.
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  • What Is an Example of a Mixture?

    Q: What Is an Example of a Mixture?

    A: Examples of mixtures include sand and sugar, alcohol and water, and flour and sugar. A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity.
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  • What Are the Two Parts of a Solution?

    Q: What Are the Two Parts of a Solution?

    A: The two parts of a solution are the solvent and the solute. When the two parts combine to make a solution, the properties of the solution differ from the properties of the two individual parts.
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  • Why Does Iodine Turn Starch Blue?

    Q: Why Does Iodine Turn Starch Blue?

    A: Starch when mixed with Iodine turns a deep shade of blue because starch contains amylose. Amylose is a soluble component of starch as well as other carbohydrates.
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