Particle Physics

A:

The element lead has 82 protons and 82 electrons. It's element number 82 and has a molar mass of 207 moles/gram. Lead’s atomic symbol is Pb.

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  • What is an atom smasher?

    Q: What is an atom smasher?

    A: An atom smasher is a large installation commonly referred to as a particle accelerator. It works by accelerating electrons to a significant fraction of the speed of light and then crashing them into the nuclei of atoms. The resulting debris can then be searched for otherwise elusive particles that can shed light on theories of physics.
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  • Where can nuclear energy be found?

    Q: Where can nuclear energy be found?

    A: According to the World Nuclear Association, as of April 2014, 31 countries derive some of their electrical power from nuclear energy. Furthermore, 56 countries have nuclear reactors dedicated to scientific research. All total there are 430 commercial power-generating nuclear plants, 240 research reactors and 180 nuclear power plants providing electricity for ships at sea.
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  • What is gene cloning?

    Q: What is gene cloning?

    A: Gene cloning occurs when a specific gene from a strand of DNA has been extracted and copied from an organism. Nearly any tissue source can be used for cloning, as long as there is not widespread degradation. DNA can also be extracted from RNA using a process called reverse transcription.
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  • Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    Q: Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    A: Robert d'Escourt Atkinson and Friedrich George "Fritz" Houtermans first discovered the origins of nuclear fusion in 1929. They are credited with discovering that the fusing of nuclei creates energy by following Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
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  • What are the building blocks of matter?

    Q: What are the building blocks of matter?

    A: The fundamental building blocks of matter are particles called quarks and leptons. There are six different types of quarks and six different types of leptons. Scientists classify the various types of quarks and leptons into different generations. Each generation contains two quarks and two leptons. The lightest and most stable particles form the first generation, and each subsequent generation contains heavier and less stable particles.
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  • What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    Q: What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    A: According to NASA, the surface gravity of Mercury is 12.1 feet per second squared. In comparison with Earth, this means that a person weighing 100 pounds on Earth would only weigh 38 pounds on Mercury.
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  • What is the space-time continuum?

    Q: What is the space-time continuum?

    A: In physics and mathematics, the space-time continuum is a model of understanding space and time in a way that emphasizes their geometric qualities and views them as parts of a single concept that spans multiple dimensions, including time. This concept was developed as a means of describing space and time as physical constructs that are closely related to each other. Albert Einstein and other scientists following him developed this concept.
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  • What percentage of his brain did Einstein use?

    Q: What percentage of his brain did Einstein use?

    A: Einstein used 100 percent of his brain just as all people do. The contention that humans use only about 10 percent of their total brain capacity is a myth that is sometimes attributed to Einstein.
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  • What is the God particle?

    Q: What is the God particle?

    A: The so-called "God particle" is more properly known as the Higgs boson. This particle was isolated for the first time at the Large Hadron Collider in a discovery announced on July 4, 2012. According to HowStuffWorks, this particle is fundamentally responsible for giving other particles their mass and might be responsible for the effects of gravity.
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  • What is the particle theory of matter?

    Q: What is the particle theory of matter?

    A: The particle theory of matter states that all matter is made up of tiny particles, specifically atoms and molecules, and that these particles have inherent characteristics. A major part of the theory is the belief that all particles in a single pure substance are the same and are different from particles of other substances.
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  • What is nuclear force?

    Q: What is nuclear force?

    A: Nuclear force is the force that holds the particles of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons, together. It is a fundamental force able to overcome the electric force that would otherwise force the nucleus apart within extremely small distances. Unlike the electrical force, the nuclear force reduces extremely quickly with distance, dropping to zero before it interacts with the atom's own electrons.
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  • What does "E=mc��" mean?

    Q: What does "E=mc��" mean?

    A: In the equation E=mc��, e stands for energy, m stands for mass and c�� stands for the speed of light squared. First proposed by Albert Einstein, this equation demonstrates that energy and matter are interchangeable.
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  • Q: How do you travel in time?

    A: As of 2014, time travel is not possible. Despite not being capable of traveling through time, since at least the 1930s, scientists have gained enough knowledge of time and space to determine that it will eventually be possible.
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  • Q: What is the amount of matter in an object called?

    A: The amount of matter in an object is referred to as its mass. Although the mass of an object is one of the factors that determines its weight, it is a different property. An object's weight is affected by gravity and can vary depending upon its location relevant to another object exerting a gravitational pull on it; however, an object's mass remains constant, even when there is no gravity acting upon it, such as in space beyond the Earth's gravitational field.
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  • Q: What subatomic particle has the least mass?

    A: An electron has the least mass of any subatomic particle, with a mass of 9.1 x 10^-31 kilograms per electron. Electrons are found in the electron cloud, an area that surrounds the nucleus of an atom.
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  • Q: What are E=mc2 calculations?

    A: According to Emc2-explained, the equation E=mc^2 describes the conversion between matter and energy. This is a constant relationship, and it applies to the conversions observed in atomic fission and nuclear fusion as well as the release of energy obtained from matter or antimatter reactions. In each case, E=mc^2 is a way of predicting energy release. The equation also predicts the amount of energy required to synthesize matter from energy.
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  • Q: What happens during radioactive decay?

    A: Radioactive decay is the process by which a radioactive atom emits particles and energy to reach a more stable configuration. Atoms may emit alpha or beta particles from the nucleus or may spontaneously split into different isotopes, producing gamma or neutron radiation.
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  • Q: How many neutrons does aluminum have?

    A: Aluminum has 14 neutrons, 13 electrons and 13 protons. Aluminum is a silvery-white metal. Its density is 2.70 grams per cubic centimeter. Its boiling point is 4,566 degrees Fahrenheit, and its melting point is 1,220.58 degrees Fahrenheit.
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  • Q: What did Erwin Schrodinger contribute to science?

    A: Austrian-born Erwin Schr��dinger made a great number of contributions to science during his lifetime, including wave mechanics theory. These discoveries and concepts about wave mechanics have been vital in modern understandings of subatomic particles and the movement and behavior of light. He also made pioneering advancements in the fields of genetic study and quantum physics.
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  • Q: What is the wavelength of the photon emitted when a hydrogen atom goes from the second energy level to the first energy level?

    A: For hydrogen, an electron jump from the second energy level down to the first emits a photon within the ultraviolet range of the spectrum at a wavelength of 1.21 x 10-7 meters, or 121 nanometers. The emitted photon has exactly 10.2 electron volts of energy.
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  • Q: How many electrons does sulfur have?

    A: Sulfur has 16 electrons. It also has 16 neutrons and 16 protons. Sulfur has the chemical symbol S and is a non-metal. It belongs to group 16 on the periodic table.
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