Particle Physics

A:

In the equation E=mc², e stands for energy, m stands for mass and c² stands for the speed of light squared. First proposed by Albert Einstein, this equation demonstrates that energy and matter are interchangeable.

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  • What is the space-time continuum?

    Q: What is the space-time continuum?

    A: In physics and mathematics, the space-time continuum is a model of understanding space and time in a way that emphasizes their geometric qualities and views them as parts of a single concept that spans multiple dimensions, including time. This concept was developed as a means of describing space and time as physical constructs that are closely related to each other. Albert Einstein and other scientists following him developed this concept.
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  • What is the God particle?

    Q: What is the God particle?

    A: The so-called "God particle" is more properly known as the Higgs boson. This particle was isolated for the first time at the Large Hadron Collider in a discovery announced on July 4, 2012. According to HowStuffWorks, this particle is fundamentally responsible for giving other particles their mass and might be responsible for the effects of gravity.
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  • Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    Q: Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    A: Robert d'Escourt Atkinson and Friedrich George "Fritz" Houtermans first discovered the origins of nuclear fusion in 1929. They are credited with discovering that the fusing of nuclei creates energy by following Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
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  • What are the building blocks of matter?

    Q: What are the building blocks of matter?

    A: The fundamental building blocks of matter are particles called quarks and leptons. There are six different types of quarks and six different types of leptons. Scientists classify the various types of quarks and leptons into different generations. Each generation contains two quarks and two leptons. The lightest and most stable particles form the first generation, and each subsequent generation contains heavier and less stable particles.
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  • What is the particle theory of matter?

    Q: What is the particle theory of matter?

    A: The particle theory of matter states that all matter is made up of tiny particles, specifically atoms and molecules, and that these particles have inherent characteristics. A major part of the theory is the belief that all particles in a single pure substance are the same and are different from particles of other substances.
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  • What is an atom smasher?

    Q: What is an atom smasher?

    A: An atom smasher is a large installation commonly referred to as a particle accelerator. It works by accelerating electrons to a significant fraction of the speed of light and then crashing them into the nuclei of atoms. The resulting debris can then be searched for otherwise elusive particles that can shed light on theories of physics.
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  • What is nuclear force?

    Q: What is nuclear force?

    A: Nuclear force is the force that holds the particles of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons, together. It is a fundamental force able to overcome the electric force that would otherwise force the nucleus apart within extremely small distances. Unlike the electrical force, the nuclear force reduces extremely quickly with distance, dropping to zero before it interacts with the atom's own electrons.
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  • What is gene cloning?

    Q: What is gene cloning?

    A: Gene cloning occurs when a specific gene from a strand of DNA has been extracted and copied from an organism. Nearly any tissue source can be used for cloning, as long as there is not widespread degradation. DNA can also be extracted from RNA using a process called reverse transcription.
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  • What percentage of his brain did Einstein use?

    Q: What percentage of his brain did Einstein use?

    A: Einstein used 100 percent of his brain just as all people do. The contention that humans use only about 10 percent of their total brain capacity is a myth that is sometimes attributed to Einstein.
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  • What does "E=mc²" mean?

    Q: What does "E=mc²" mean?

    A: In the equation E=mc², e stands for energy, m stands for mass and c² stands for the speed of light squared. First proposed by Albert Einstein, this equation demonstrates that energy and matter are interchangeable.
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  • Where can nuclear energy be found?

    Q: Where can nuclear energy be found?

    A: According to the World Nuclear Association, as of April 2014, 31 countries derive some of their electrical power from nuclear energy. Furthermore, 56 countries have nuclear reactors dedicated to scientific research. All total there are 430 commercial power-generating nuclear plants, 240 research reactors and 180 nuclear power plants providing electricity for ships at sea.
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  • What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    Q: What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    A: According to NASA, the surface gravity of Mercury is 12.1 feet per second squared. In comparison with Earth, this means that a person weighing 100 pounds on Earth would only weigh 38 pounds on Mercury.
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  • Q: What happens if you get near a black hole?

    A: Phil Plait of Bad Astronomy states that if a person were to approach a black hole feet-first, it would pull his feet at a faster and stronger rate than it would pull his head. This essentially means that the person's body would be stretched into a long, thin strand until it was eventually fragmented.
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  • Q: What was John Needham's experiment?

    A: John Needham’s experiment involved placing a broth into a bottle, heating it and then sealing it. Days later, Needham found the presence of life, and eventually announced that life had been created from nonliving material. This supported the incorrect idea that life could come from nonliving things.
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  • Q: What is the sum of protons and neutrons?

    A: The sum of protons and neutrons is the mass number. The mass of an atom is contained mainly within the nucleus where the protons and neutrons live. An electron's mass does not contribute significantly to the mass of the atom.
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  • Q: Which quantum number signifies the size of the electron cloud?

    A: The first quantum number, called the principal quantum number (n), refers to the size of the electron cloud and the energy of an electron. The range of the n value goes from one to the number of the shell that contains the outermost electron.
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  • Q: What is the maximum number of electrons an orbital may contain?

    A: Orbitals may contain only two electrons each. Electrons move around in orbitals, which are areas where electrons have a high possibility of being found. Orbitals are grouped together into energy levels.
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  • Q: What is a newton meter?

    A: According to Dictionary.com, a newton meter is equivalent to the work done by a force of one unit when its point of application moves through a distance of 1 meter in the direction of the force. It is the standard unit of work energy in the International System of Units.
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  • What is the difference between the apical and radial pulse?

    Q: What is the difference between the apical and radial pulse?

    A: The apical pulse is assessed through a stethoscope placed over the heart, while the radial pulse is typically taken by applying finger pressure to the inner wrist and counting the number of heartbeats. They are the most-common forms of checking a pulse.
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  • Q: What Did Paul Dirac Discover?

    A: Paul Dirac and Erwin Schrodinger discovered new productive forms of atomic theory. Both men shared a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933 for this discovery. Atomic theory consists of many different ways of explaining the structure and behavior of all the aspects of the atom.
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  • Q: What is a charged particle called?

    A: The term "charged particle" may refer to an ion, an electron, a proton, a positron, an alpha particle, an atomic nucleus that contains no electrons or another particle carrying a positive or negative charge. For example, a proton carries a charge of +1, while an electron has a -1 charge.
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