Particle Physics

A:

In physics and mathematics, the space-time continuum is a model of understanding space and time in a way that emphasizes their geometric qualities and views them as parts of a single concept that spans multiple dimensions, including time. This concept was developed as a means of describing space and time as physical constructs that are closely related to each other. Albert Einstein and other scientists following him developed this concept.

See Full Answer
Filed Under:
  • What is gene cloning?

    Q: What is gene cloning?

    A: Gene cloning occurs when a specific gene from a strand of DNA has been extracted and copied from an organism. Nearly any tissue source can be used for cloning, as long as there is not widespread degradation. DNA can also be extracted from RNA using a process called reverse transcription.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    Q: Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    A: Robert d'Escourt Atkinson and Friedrich George "Fritz" Houtermans first discovered the origins of nuclear fusion in 1929. They are credited with discovering that the fusing of nuclei creates energy by following Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    Q: What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    A: According to NASA, the surface gravity of Mercury is 12.1 feet per second squared. In comparison with Earth, this means that a person weighing 100 pounds on Earth would only weigh 38 pounds on Mercury.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the space-time continuum?

    Q: What is the space-time continuum?

    A: In physics and mathematics, the space-time continuum is a model of understanding space and time in a way that emphasizes their geometric qualities and views them as parts of a single concept that spans multiple dimensions, including time. This concept was developed as a means of describing space and time as physical constructs that are closely related to each other. Albert Einstein and other scientists following him developed this concept.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Where can nuclear energy be found?

    Q: Where can nuclear energy be found?

    A: According to the World Nuclear Association, as of April 2014, 31 countries derive some of their electrical power from nuclear energy. Furthermore, 56 countries have nuclear reactors dedicated to scientific research. All total there are 430 commercial power-generating nuclear plants, 240 research reactors and 180 nuclear power plants providing electricity for ships at sea.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What percentage of his brain did Einstein use?

    Q: What percentage of his brain did Einstein use?

    A: Einstein used 100 percent of his brain just as all people do. The contention that humans use only about 10 percent of their total brain capacity is a myth that is sometimes attributed to Einstein.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is nuclear force?

    Q: What is nuclear force?

    A: Nuclear force is the force that holds the particles of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons, together. It is a fundamental force able to overcome the electric force that would otherwise force the nucleus apart within extremely small distances. Unlike the electrical force, the nuclear force reduces extremely quickly with distance, dropping to zero before it interacts with the atom's own electrons.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the God particle?

    Q: What is the God particle?

    A: The so-called "God particle" is more properly known as the Higgs boson. This particle was isolated for the first time at the Large Hadron Collider in a discovery announced on July 4, 2012. According to HowStuffWorks, this particle is fundamentally responsible for giving other particles their mass and might be responsible for the effects of gravity.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What does "E=mc²" mean?

    Q: What does "E=mc²" mean?

    A: In the equation E=mc², e stands for energy, m stands for mass and c² stands for the speed of light squared. First proposed by Albert Einstein, this equation demonstrates that energy and matter are interchangeable.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the particle theory of matter?

    Q: What is the particle theory of matter?

    A: The particle theory of matter states that all matter is made up of tiny particles, specifically atoms and molecules, and that these particles have inherent characteristics. A major part of the theory is the belief that all particles in a single pure substance are the same and are different from particles of other substances.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is an atom smasher?

    Q: What is an atom smasher?

    A: An atom smasher is a large installation commonly referred to as a particle accelerator. It works by accelerating electrons to a significant fraction of the speed of light and then crashing them into the nuclei of atoms. The resulting debris can then be searched for otherwise elusive particles that can shed light on theories of physics.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are the building blocks of matter?

    Q: What are the building blocks of matter?

    A: The fundamental building blocks of matter are particles called quarks and leptons. There are six different types of quarks and six different types of leptons. Scientists classify the various types of quarks and leptons into different generations. Each generation contains two quarks and two leptons. The lightest and most stable particles form the first generation, and each subsequent generation contains heavier and less stable particles.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What states that atoms tend to gain lose or share electrons in order to achieve a full set of valence electrons typically?

    A: According to the octet rule, atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons in order to achieve a full set of valence electrons. When their valence shells gain a full complement of valence electrons, atoms become especially stable. An element tends to take the shortest path to achieving a full valence shell, whether that means gaining or losing an electron.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What is an example of E=m*c^2?

    A: One example of E=m*c^2 is the equation that demonstrates the conversion of 1 kg of matter into 9.0*(10^16) J of energy. Examples of E=m*c^2, or the mass-energy equivalence equation, can be found in physics classrooms in equations that convert matter to energy and vice versa. The formula is based on the theory that matter is directly proportional to energy.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: Who was Alessandro Volta?

    A: Alessandro Volta was an Italian physicist credited for the invention of the electric battery in 1800. He also made discoveries in electrostatics, meteorology and pneumatics. The word "volt," named after Volta, is a measurement of electricity.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What is a Bohr diagram?

    A: A Bohr diagram shows the distribution of an atom's electrons among different energy levels, or electron shells. Each diagram also features the number of protons and neutrons in the atom's nucleus.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: Why does styrofoam float in water?

    A: Styrofoam floats in water because it is less dense than water. This principle applies to all objects. That is, anything less dense than water will float, while anything more dense will sink.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What are some ionosphere facts?

    A: The ionosphere is located between 46 and 621 miles above the Earth's surface and is composed of plasma, a state of matter that is a combination of free electrons and ionized atoms. The ionosphere contains the thermosphere and portions of the exosphere and the mesosphere.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What did the gold foil experiment prove?

    A: The gold foil experiment, conducted by Ernest Rutherford, proved the existence of a tiny, dense atomic core, which he called the nucleus. Rutherford's findings negated the plum pudding atomic theory that was postulated by J.J. Thomson and made prior to the discovery of the nucleus.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What was John Needham's experiment?

    A: John Needham’s experiment involved placing a broth into a bottle, heating it and then sealing it. Days later, Needham found the presence of life, and eventually announced that life had been created from nonliving material. This supported the incorrect idea that life could come from nonliving things.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What do particles of matter do according to the kinetic molecular theory?

    A: According to the kinetic molecular theory, particles in a gaseous state, whether in the form of molecules or atomic gases, are in constant, straight-line motion, occasionally bouncing off each other in perfectly elastic collisions which change their direction without slowing them down. It depends on a number of assumptions, such as the idea that the particles are very small compared to the space between them.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under: