Particle Physics

A:

In physics and mathematics, the space-time continuum is a model of understanding space and time in a way that emphasizes their geometric qualities and views them as parts of a single concept that spans multiple dimensions, including time. This concept was developed as a means of describing space and time as physical constructs that are closely related to each other. Albert Einstein and other scientists following him developed this concept.

See Full Answer
Filed Under:
  • What is an atom smasher?

    Q: What is an atom smasher?

    A: An atom smasher is a large installation commonly referred to as a particle accelerator. It works by accelerating electrons to a significant fraction of the speed of light and then crashing them into the nuclei of atoms. The resulting debris can then be searched for otherwise elusive particles that can shed light on theories of physics.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What does "E=mc²" mean?

    Q: What does "E=mc²" mean?

    A: In the equation E=mc², e stands for energy, m stands for mass and c² stands for the speed of light squared. First proposed by Albert Einstein, this equation demonstrates that energy and matter are interchangeable.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Where can nuclear energy be found?

    Q: Where can nuclear energy be found?

    A: According to the World Nuclear Association, as of April 2014, 31 countries derive some of their electrical power from nuclear energy. Furthermore, 56 countries have nuclear reactors dedicated to scientific research. All total there are 430 commercial power-generating nuclear plants, 240 research reactors and 180 nuclear power plants providing electricity for ships at sea.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the particle theory of matter?

    Q: What is the particle theory of matter?

    A: The particle theory of matter states that all matter is made up of tiny particles, specifically atoms and molecules, and that these particles have inherent characteristics. A major part of the theory is the belief that all particles in a single pure substance are the same and are different from particles of other substances.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the God particle?

    Q: What is the God particle?

    A: The so-called "God particle" is more properly known as the Higgs boson. This particle was isolated for the first time at the Large Hadron Collider in a discovery announced on July 4, 2012. According to HowStuffWorks, this particle is fundamentally responsible for giving other particles their mass and might be responsible for the effects of gravity.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the space-time continuum?

    Q: What is the space-time continuum?

    A: In physics and mathematics, the space-time continuum is a model of understanding space and time in a way that emphasizes their geometric qualities and views them as parts of a single concept that spans multiple dimensions, including time. This concept was developed as a means of describing space and time as physical constructs that are closely related to each other. Albert Einstein and other scientists following him developed this concept.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    Q: Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    A: Robert d'Escourt Atkinson and Friedrich George "Fritz" Houtermans first discovered the origins of nuclear fusion in 1929. They are credited with discovering that the fusing of nuclei creates energy by following Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is nuclear force?

    Q: What is nuclear force?

    A: Nuclear force is the force that holds the particles of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons, together. It is a fundamental force able to overcome the electric force that would otherwise force the nucleus apart within extremely small distances. Unlike the electrical force, the nuclear force reduces extremely quickly with distance, dropping to zero before it interacts with the atom's own electrons.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are the building blocks of matter?

    Q: What are the building blocks of matter?

    A: The fundamental building blocks of matter are particles called quarks and leptons. There are six different types of quarks and six different types of leptons. Scientists classify the various types of quarks and leptons into different generations. Each generation contains two quarks and two leptons. The lightest and most stable particles form the first generation, and each subsequent generation contains heavier and less stable particles.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    Q: What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    A: According to NASA, the surface gravity of Mercury is 12.1 feet per second squared. In comparison with Earth, this means that a person weighing 100 pounds on Earth would only weigh 38 pounds on Mercury.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What percentage of his brain did Einstein use?

    Q: What percentage of his brain did Einstein use?

    A: Einstein used 100 percent of his brain just as all people do. The contention that humans use only about 10 percent of their total brain capacity is a myth that is sometimes attributed to Einstein.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is gene cloning?

    Q: What is gene cloning?

    A: Gene cloning occurs when a specific gene from a strand of DNA has been extracted and copied from an organism. Nearly any tissue source can be used for cloning, as long as there is not widespread degradation. DNA can also be extracted from RNA using a process called reverse transcription.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are the real-life examples of Newton's second law?

    Q: What are the real-life examples of Newton's second law?

    A: Newton's second law states that the speed of acceleration of a moving object depends on the object's mass and the force being exerted on it. One instance of this is the understanding that it requires much more force to push a vehicle than to kick a soccer ball, for example.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: How many brothers and sisters did Einstein have?

    A: The famous German physicist Albert Einstein had only one sister and no brothers. Albert was born on March 14, 1879, in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany. His younger sister, Maja, was born two years later in 1881 in Munich.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the difference between the apical and radial pulse?

    Q: What is the difference between the apical and radial pulse?

    A: The apical pulse is assessed through a stethoscope placed over the heart, while the radial pulse is typically taken by applying finger pressure to the inner wrist and counting the number of heartbeats. They are the most-common forms of checking a pulse.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What is a Bohr diagram?

    A: A Bohr diagram shows the distribution of an atom's electrons among different energy levels, or electron shells. Each diagram also features the number of protons and neutrons in the atom's nucleus.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What is the sum of protons and neutrons?

    A: The sum of protons and neutrons is the mass number. The mass of an atom is contained mainly within the nucleus where the protons and neutrons live. An electron's mass does not contribute significantly to the mass of the atom.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What is the difference between plutonium and uranium?

    A: Plutonium has 94 protons in its nucleus, compared to the 92 in uranium, and is typically produced in nuclear reactors as a byproduct. Although both plutonium and uranium are rare, naturally occurring elements, plutonium is no longer found in the earth's crust, but uranium is actively mined. There is enough uranium inside the Earth that its radioactive decay is believed to heat the Earth's core.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What did the gold foil experiment prove?

    A: The gold foil experiment, conducted by Ernest Rutherford, proved the existence of a tiny, dense atomic core, which he called the nucleus. Rutherford's findings negated the plum pudding atomic theory that was postulated by J.J. Thomson and made prior to the discovery of the nucleus.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What is cosmic background radiation?

    A: Cosmic microwave background radiation can be thought of as the echo of the Big Bang. It is the residual energy from the first few hundred-thousand years after the beginning of the universe. According to Universe Today, this radiation fills the entire universe.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Q: What subatomic particle has the least mass?

    A: An electron has the least mass of any subatomic particle, with a mass of 9.1 x 10^-31 kilograms per electron. Electrons are found in the electron cloud, an area that surrounds the nucleus of an atom.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under: