Particle Physics

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In the equation E=mc², e stands for energy, m stands for mass and c² stands for the speed of light squared. First proposed by Albert Einstein, this equation demonstrates that energy and matter are interchangeable.

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  • What is the particle theory of matter?

    Q: What is the particle theory of matter?

    A: The particle theory of matter states that all matter is made up of tiny particles, specifically atoms and molecules, and that these particles have inherent characteristics. A major part of the theory is the belief that all particles in a single pure substance are the same and are different from particles of other substances.
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  • What is the God particle?

    Q: What is the God particle?

    A: The so-called "God particle" is more properly known as the Higgs boson. This particle was isolated for the first time at the Large Hadron Collider in a discovery announced on July 4, 2012. According to HowStuffWorks, this particle is fundamentally responsible for giving other particles their mass and might be responsible for the effects of gravity.
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  • What is the space-time continuum?

    Q: What is the space-time continuum?

    A: In physics and mathematics, the space-time continuum is a model of understanding space and time in a way that emphasizes their geometric qualities and views them as parts of a single concept that spans multiple dimensions, including time. This concept was developed as a means of describing space and time as physical constructs that are closely related to each other. Albert Einstein and other scientists following him developed this concept.
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  • What is gene cloning?

    Q: What is gene cloning?

    A: Gene cloning occurs when a specific gene from a strand of DNA has been extracted and copied from an organism. Nearly any tissue source can be used for cloning, as long as there is not widespread degradation. DNA can also be extracted from RNA using a process called reverse transcription.
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  • What is an atom smasher?

    Q: What is an atom smasher?

    A: An atom smasher is a large installation commonly referred to as a particle accelerator. It works by accelerating electrons to a significant fraction of the speed of light and then crashing them into the nuclei of atoms. The resulting debris can then be searched for otherwise elusive particles that can shed light on theories of physics.
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  • What does "E=mc²" mean?

    Q: What does "E=mc²" mean?

    A: In the equation E=mc², e stands for energy, m stands for mass and c² stands for the speed of light squared. First proposed by Albert Einstein, this equation demonstrates that energy and matter are interchangeable.
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  • What are the building blocks of matter?

    Q: What are the building blocks of matter?

    A: The fundamental building blocks of matter are particles called quarks and leptons. There are six different types of quarks and six different types of leptons. Scientists classify the various types of quarks and leptons into different generations. Each generation contains two quarks and two leptons. The lightest and most stable particles form the first generation, and each subsequent generation contains heavier and less stable particles.
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  • What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    Q: What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    A: According to NASA, the surface gravity of Mercury is 12.1 feet per second squared. In comparison with Earth, this means that a person weighing 100 pounds on Earth would only weigh 38 pounds on Mercury.
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  • Where can nuclear energy be found?

    Q: Where can nuclear energy be found?

    A: According to the World Nuclear Association, as of April 2014, 31 countries derive some of their electrical power from nuclear energy. Furthermore, 56 countries have nuclear reactors dedicated to scientific research. All total there are 430 commercial power-generating nuclear plants, 240 research reactors and 180 nuclear power plants providing electricity for ships at sea.
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  • Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    Q: Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    A: Robert d'Escourt Atkinson and Friedrich George "Fritz" Houtermans first discovered the origins of nuclear fusion in 1929. They are credited with discovering that the fusing of nuclei creates energy by following Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
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  • What is nuclear force?

    Q: What is nuclear force?

    A: Nuclear force is the force that holds the particles of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons, together. It is a fundamental force able to overcome the electric force that would otherwise force the nucleus apart within extremely small distances. Unlike the electrical force, the nuclear force reduces extremely quickly with distance, dropping to zero before it interacts with the atom's own electrons.
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  • What percentage of his brain did Einstein use?

    Q: What percentage of his brain did Einstein use?

    A: Einstein used 100 percent of his brain just as all people do. The contention that humans use only about 10 percent of their total brain capacity is a myth that is sometimes attributed to Einstein.
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  • Q: How many neutrons does aluminum have?

    A: Aluminum has 14 neutrons, 13 electrons and 13 protons. Aluminum is a silvery-white metal. Its density is 2.70 grams per cubic centimeter. Its boiling point is 4,566 degrees Fahrenheit, and its melting point is 1,220.58 degrees Fahrenheit.
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  • Q: Why is string theory important?

    A: String theory helps human beings understand the nature of the universe and how it works. There are no practical applications for string theory, as of 2014.
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  • Q: How much heavier is a proton than an electron?

    A: A proton is approximately 2,000 times heavier than an electron. Protons and electrons, along with neutrons, are the principal sub-atomic particles that make up an atom.
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  • Q: What Did Paul Dirac Discover?

    A: Paul Dirac and Erwin Schrodinger discovered new productive forms of atomic theory. Both men shared a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933 for this discovery. Atomic theory consists of many different ways of explaining the structure and behavior of all the aspects of the atom.
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  • Q: How many electrons does sulfur have?

    A: Sulfur has 16 electrons. It also has 16 neutrons and 16 protons. Sulfur has the chemical symbol S and is a non-metal. It belongs to group 16 on the periodic table.
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  • Q: Are matter and antimatter equal in quantity?

    A: The observable universe seems to consist of almost nothing but matter. It isn't clear why because models of the early universe generally predict that matter and antimatter were created in exactly equal quantities.
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  • Q: What was Ernest Rutherford's atomic theory?

    A: Rutherford’s atomic theory was that an atom had a central positive nucleus with negative electrons orbiting it. He developed this theory with his gold foil experiment.
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  • Q: How do you find electrons?

    A: According to Reference.com, "An atom consists of a small, dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that whirl about it in orbits, forming a cloud of charge." In a broad sense of the term, electrons are everywhere and in everything, as they are one of the elementary particles that make up an atom.
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  • Q: Who invented the string theory?

    A: String theory developed over several decades through the combined efforts of multiple scientists; no one scientist invented it. However, in 1943, Werner Heisenberg started the original research program that led to the development of the theory.
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