Particle Physics

A:

The element lead has 82 protons and 82 electrons. It's element number 82 and has a molar mass of 207 moles/gram. Lead’s atomic symbol is Pb.

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  • What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    Q: What is the force of gravity on Mercury?

    A: According to NASA, the surface gravity of Mercury is 12.1 feet per second squared. In comparison with Earth, this means that a person weighing 100 pounds on Earth would only weigh 38 pounds on Mercury.
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  • What is the particle theory of matter?

    Q: What is the particle theory of matter?

    A: The particle theory of matter states that all matter is made up of tiny particles, specifically atoms and molecules, and that these particles have inherent characteristics. A major part of the theory is the belief that all particles in a single pure substance are the same and are different from particles of other substances.
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  • What is gene cloning?

    Q: What is gene cloning?

    A: Gene cloning occurs when a specific gene from a strand of DNA has been extracted and copied from an organism. Nearly any tissue source can be used for cloning, as long as there is not widespread degradation. DNA can also be extracted from RNA using a process called reverse transcription.
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  • Where can nuclear energy be found?

    Q: Where can nuclear energy be found?

    A: According to the World Nuclear Association, as of April 2014, 31 countries derive some of their electrical power from nuclear energy. Furthermore, 56 countries have nuclear reactors dedicated to scientific research. All total there are 430 commercial power-generating nuclear plants, 240 research reactors and 180 nuclear power plants providing electricity for ships at sea.
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  • What is the space-time continuum?

    Q: What is the space-time continuum?

    A: In physics and mathematics, the space-time continuum is a model of understanding space and time in a way that emphasizes their geometric qualities and views them as parts of a single concept that spans multiple dimensions, including time. This concept was developed as a means of describing space and time as physical constructs that are closely related to each other. Albert Einstein and other scientists following him developed this concept.
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  • What is nuclear force?

    Q: What is nuclear force?

    A: Nuclear force is the force that holds the particles of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons, together. It is a fundamental force able to overcome the electric force that would otherwise force the nucleus apart within extremely small distances. Unlike the electrical force, the nuclear force reduces extremely quickly with distance, dropping to zero before it interacts with the atom's own electrons.
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  • What does "E=mc²" mean?

    Q: What does "E=mc²" mean?

    A: In the equation E=mc², e stands for energy, m stands for mass and c² stands for the speed of light squared. First proposed by Albert Einstein, this equation demonstrates that energy and matter are interchangeable.
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  • What is the God particle?

    Q: What is the God particle?

    A: The so-called "God particle" is more properly known as the Higgs boson. This particle was isolated for the first time at the Large Hadron Collider in a discovery announced on July 4, 2012. According to HowStuffWorks, this particle is fundamentally responsible for giving other particles their mass and might be responsible for the effects of gravity.
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  • What are the building blocks of matter?

    Q: What are the building blocks of matter?

    A: The fundamental building blocks of matter are particles called quarks and leptons. There are six different types of quarks and six different types of leptons. Scientists classify the various types of quarks and leptons into different generations. Each generation contains two quarks and two leptons. The lightest and most stable particles form the first generation, and each subsequent generation contains heavier and less stable particles.
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  • What is an atom smasher?

    Q: What is an atom smasher?

    A: An atom smasher is a large installation commonly referred to as a particle accelerator. It works by accelerating electrons to a significant fraction of the speed of light and then crashing them into the nuclei of atoms. The resulting debris can then be searched for otherwise elusive particles that can shed light on theories of physics.
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  • Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    Q: Who discovered nuclear fusion?

    A: Robert d'Escourt Atkinson and Friedrich George "Fritz" Houtermans first discovered the origins of nuclear fusion in 1929. They are credited with discovering that the fusing of nuclei creates energy by following Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
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  • Q: What is the electron sea model of metallic bonding?

    A: The electron sea model explains how metallic elements bond to each other. The valence electrons of each element are delocalized and are free to move around the fixed proton centers as if they were floating in a sea of electrons.
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  • Q: What is the wavelength of the photon emitted when a hydrogen atom goes from the second energy level to the first energy level?

    A: For hydrogen, an electron jump from the second energy level down to the first emits a photon within the ultraviolet range of the spectrum at a wavelength of 1.21 x 10-7 meters, or 121 nanometers. The emitted photon has exactly 10.2 electron volts of energy.
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  • Q: What is the maximum number of electrons an orbital may contain?

    A: Orbitals may contain only two electrons each. Electrons move around in orbitals, which are areas where electrons have a high possibility of being found. Orbitals are grouped together into energy levels.
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  • Q: What are some easy ways to explain quantum physics?

    A: Quantum physics is, by nature, counterinuitive and illogical, so there is no easy way to fully explain the concepts that underpin it. Some of the more famous concepts are wave-particle duality, superposition and the uncertainty principle.
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  • Q: What did Ernest Rutherford discover?

    A: Ernest Rutherford made several discoveries, the most notable ones were the discovery of the nucleus in atoms, radiation half-life and the differentiation between alpha and beta radiation. Out of all of his discoveries, the discovery of the nucleus is possible his most well known one. The majority of Rutherford's work was accomplished after he was already a Nobel Prize laureate.
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  • Q: How is the principal quantum number symbolized?

    A: The principal quantum number is often symbolized by the letter n. However, depending on the context, the principal quantum number can be denoted by other symbols as well.
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  • Q: What are some nuclear EMP effects on society?

    A: The societal effects of an electromagnetic pulse blast resulting from a nuclear detonation are devastating and can include a complete loss of power over a large range, such as an entire city or more. Almost all unshielded electronic equipment would instantly cease functioning in such an event. Power lines would fry, causing the collapse of the power grid and all utilities associated with it.
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  • What is particle theory?

    Q: What is particle theory?

    A: Particle theory, also referred to as the kinetic theory of matter, is a theory in science that describes all forms of matter as being composed of tiny particles that are always in a constant state of motion. The theory also states that the degree to which these particles move around depends on the amount of energy that is present in the matter and what the nature of the relationship is between the various particles.
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  • Q: How much heavier is a proton than an electron?

    A: A proton is approximately 2,000 times heavier than an electron. Protons and electrons, along with neutrons, are the principal sub-atomic particles that make up an atom.
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  • Q: What do particles of matter do according to the kinetic molecular theory?

    A: According to the kinetic molecular theory, particles in a gaseous state, whether in the form of molecules or atomic gases, are in constant, straight-line motion, occasionally bouncing off each other in perfectly elastic collisions which change their direction without slowing them down. It depends on a number of assumptions, such as the idea that the particles are very small compared to the space between them.
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