Particle Physics

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The fundamental building blocks of matter are particles called quarks and leptons. There are six different types of quarks and six different types of leptons. Scientists classify the various types of quarks and leptons into different generations. Each generation contains two quarks and two leptons. The lightest and most stable particles form the first generation, and each subsequent generation contains heavier and less stable particles.

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  • What Is the Space-Time Continuum?

    Q: What Is the Space-Time Continuum?

    A: In physics and mathematics, the space-time continuum is a model of understanding space and time in a way that emphasizes their geometric qualities and views them as parts of a single concept that spans multiple dimensions, including time. This concept was developed as a means of describing space and time as physical constructs that are closely related to each other. Albert Einstein and other scientists following him developed this concept.
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  • What Is the Particle Theory of Matter?

    Q: What Is the Particle Theory of Matter?

    A: The particle theory of matter states that all matter is made up of tiny particles, specifically atoms and molecules, and that these particles have inherent characteristics. A major part of the theory is the belief that all particles in a single pure substance are the same and are different from particles of other substances.
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  • What Is the Force of Gravity on Mercury?

    Q: What Is the Force of Gravity on Mercury?

    A: According to NASA, the surface gravity of Mercury is 12.1 feet per second squared. In comparison with Earth, this means that a person weighing 100 pounds on Earth would only weigh 38 pounds on Mercury.
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  • Who Discovered Nuclear Fusion?

    Q: Who Discovered Nuclear Fusion?

    A: Robert d'Escourt Atkinson and Friedrich George "Fritz" Houtermans first discovered the origins of nuclear fusion in 1929. They are credited with discovering that the fusing of nuclei creates energy by following Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
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  • What Does "E=mc²" Mean?

    Q: What Does "E=mc²" Mean?

    A: In the equation E=mc², e stands for energy, m stands for mass and c² stands for the speed of light squared. First proposed by Albert Einstein, this equation demonstrates that energy and matter are interchangeable.
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  • What Is the God Particle?

    Q: What Is the God Particle?

    A: The so-called "God particle" is more properly known as the Higgs boson. This particle was isolated for the first time at the Large Hadron Collider in a discovery announced on July 4, 2012. According to HowStuffWorks, this particle is fundamentally responsible for giving other particles their mass and might be responsible for the effects of gravity.
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  • What Is Nuclear Force?

    Q: What Is Nuclear Force?

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  • What Is Gene Cloning?

    Q: What Is Gene Cloning?

    A: Gene cloning occurs when a specific gene from a strand of DNA has been extracted and copied from an organism. Nearly any tissue source can be used for cloning, as long as there is not widespread degradation. DNA can also be extracted from RNA using a process called reverse transcription.
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  • What Are the Building Blocks of Matter?

    Q: What Are the Building Blocks of Matter?

    A: The fundamental building blocks of matter are particles called quarks and leptons. There are six different types of quarks and six different types of leptons. Scientists classify the various types of quarks and leptons into different generations. Each generation contains two quarks and two leptons. The lightest and most stable particles form the first generation, and each subsequent generation contains heavier and less stable particles.
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  • What Is an Atom Smasher?

    Q: What Is an Atom Smasher?

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  • Where Can Nuclear Energy Be Found?

    Q: Where Can Nuclear Energy Be Found?

    A: According to the World Nuclear Association, as of April 2014, 31 countries derive some of their electrical power from nuclear energy. Furthermore, 56 countries have nuclear reactors dedicated to scientific research. All total there are 430 commercial power-generating nuclear plants, 240 research reactors and 180 nuclear power plants providing electricity for ships at sea.
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  • Q: What Is the Smallest Unit of Matter?

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  • Q: How to Make Homemade Super Glue?

    A: To make homemade super glue, gather the proper ingredients, which includes milk, baking soda, white vinegar and water, heat the milk mixture until it begins to curdle, and add baking soda and water until you arrive at the desired consistency. Let the mixture cool.
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  • Q: What Is CERN's Large Hadron Collider?

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  • Q: What Are Some Interesting Facts About James Chadwick?

    A: James Chadwick was born on Oct. 18, 1891 and was an English physicist that received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the neutron. He was knighted in 1945 for his achievements in physics.
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  • What Is Simplified String Theory?

    Q: What Is Simplified String Theory?

    A: Simply put, string theory is an approach to modeling the four fundamental interactions of physics and resolving the conflict that they cause between classical and quantum physics. The four interactions that string theory models include gravitation, electromagnetism, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force.
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  • Q: What Is the Conversion of a Substance From One Physical Form to Another?

    A: Scientists typically refer to a substance changing its physical form as a changing state of matter. These changes to the state of matter are from changes in temperature and air pressure, which affect the density of solids, liquids and gases by either pushing the particles closer together, producing a denser state or pulling them further apart.
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  • Q: What Is Wave Energy?

    A: According to Pelamis Wave Power, wave energy is energy transferred from wind forces to the waves of a body of water, such as the ocean. Wave energy should not be confused with tidal energy.
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  • What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Radiation?

    Q: What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Radiation?

    A: Radiation therapy can be helpful in treating and destroying tumors in the body, but it can also cause long-term damage to tissues. There are many advantages and disadvantages of radiation. Radiation can be used in the form of X-rays to detect unseen problems in the body, but it can also cause skin rash and other ailments.
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  • Q: What Did Stephen Hawking Discover?

    A: Stephen Hawking is responsible for the discovery of black hole radiation, which is often referred to as Hawking Radiation. Hawking has played a part in many scientific fields and has collaborated with a number of other scientists to work on various theories and projects all over the world.
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  • Q: What Are Some Disadvanatges of Nuclear Fusion Energy?

    A: Some disadvantages of nuclear fusion energy include high costs of production, a long period of planning and development, the raw material is scarce, the risk to national security and risk of radiation. Nuclear fusion also emits a lot of heat energy that may be difficult to contain.
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