Motion & Mechanics

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The danger of pyroclastic flow comes from its speed and heat. According to Michigan Technological University, pyroclastic flows have reached extreme high temperatures, including flows from the Mt. Pelee eruption that got as hot as 1,967 Fahrenheit (1,075 Celsius).

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  • What is the meaning of unbalanced force?

    Q: What is the meaning of unbalanced force?

    A: Unbalanced force occurs when two forces acting on an object are not equal in size, causing a change in motion. Unbalanced forces cause a still object to move or moving objects to slow down or speed up, stop or change direction.
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  • How is riding a bike an example of Newton's third law of motion?

    Q: How is riding a bike an example of Newton's third law of motion?

    A: Riding a bike is an example of Newton's third law of motion because the force needed to pedal a bike forward, which is the force that the tire exerts on the ground, is equal to the force of the ground pushing against the tire. The real-world example of riding a bike can also be used to demonstrate Newton's first and second laws of motion.
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  • How much force can a person exert?

    Q: How much force can a person exert?

    A: The amount of force a person can exert depends on many variables, including that person's mass, the acceleration being used to exert the force, and the friction, gravity and other forces involved. According to Live Science, researchers found that boxers' punches can generate up to 5,000 newtons of force.
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  • How did Newton discover gravity?

    Q: How did Newton discover gravity?

    A: Sir Isaac Newton discovered gravity around 1665 while he was drinking tea and observed an apple falling from a tree. Newton deduced that the force that caused the apple to fall to the ground also is the same force that causes the moon to orbit the earth.
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  • How does a water turbine work?

    Q: How does a water turbine work?

    A: Water turbines convert the motion of moving water into rotating mechanical energy by catching the water with large blades. They are important to the structure and function of hydropower plants. There are different models of water turbines, but all perform the same basic function of converting the energy of the moving water into the revolutions of a shaft.
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  • How do I define "polarity of water?"

    Q: How do I define "polarity of water?"

    A: The polarity of water is the net result of the overall negative charge of the oxygen atom and the overall positive charges of the two hydrogen atoms. The outcome is a difference in charge, or polarity, from one end of the molecule to the other.
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  • How does an oil jack pump work?

    Q: How does an oil jack pump work?

    A: An oil jack pump works through a series of gears and a motor that lower a plunger into a certain depth and allow it to fill up with pumped fluid. The plunger is then closed off and raised with the same mechanics that lowered it so that the fluids that are inside the well cannot leave, according to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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  • What is acceleration?

    Q: What is acceleration?

    A: Acceleration is any change in the speed or the direction of movement. It does not matter, from a scientific point of view, if only the direction changes but not the speed, as with a planet in a circular orbit, or if the object is reducing in speed but keeping the same direction. Acceleration, like velocity, is a vector quantity, so it can only occur in one direction.
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  • What are radio waves used for?

    Q: What are radio waves used for?

    A: Radio waves are used to receive and transmit signals between two objects. These waves help to transfer signals from broadcasting stations to televisions and radios, and they are also used to transmit signals for cellular phones.
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  • What is the Bernoulli Principle?

    Q: What is the Bernoulli Principle?

    A: The Bernoulli Principle is the concept that claims that as the velocity of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases. Daniel Bernoulli was an 18th century scientist who discovered this principle.
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  • What is the law of inertia?

    Q: What is the law of inertia?

    A: The law of inertia states that an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. The law of inertia is sometimes referred to as Newton's first law of motion.
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  • How does mass affect speed?

    Q: How does mass affect speed?

    A: Mass does not affect speed directly, but it does affect how fast an object can change its speed by accelerating or decelerating. Objects with larger masses require more time for acceleration or deceleration compared to lighter objects.
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  • How does temperature relate to kinetic energy?

    Q: How does temperature relate to kinetic energy?

    A: Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. If the degree of motion of the molecules inside an object doubles, the temperature will also double.
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  • How much pressure can an egg withstand?

    Q: How much pressure can an egg withstand?

    A: An experiment conducted at the Science Studio at Imagination Station demonstrated that a single egg was able to withstand at least 3.75 pounds of force. Eggs are most resistant to breaking when pressure is applied to their ends.
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  • What is a compound pulley?

    Q: What is a compound pulley?

    A: A compound pulley, sometimes referred to as a block-and-tackle system, is a mechanical arrangement of pulleys that permits a trade-off of applied force for distance, according to HowStuffWorks. By slinging rope over and through a system of wheels, a compound pulley permits weights to be lifted and pulled with the application of relatively little force, saving energy and reducing the power needed to accomplish work.
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  • What is a mechanical governor?

    Q: What is a mechanical governor?

    A: The mechanical governor in an engine uses flyweights and gears in the crankcase to sense the speed to detect changes in the load and increases or decreases the throttle accordingly. According to Briggs and Stratton, a governor is like a car's cruise control system, as it keeps the engine running at the same speed.
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  • How does a petrol engine work?

    Q: How does a petrol engine work?

    A: Petrol engines harness the energy created by petrol in the core of a car engine to propel the vehicle. Petrol is a high-energy fuel that releases large amounts of energy when ignited in an internal combustion engine.
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  • What is gravitational pull?

    Q: What is gravitational pull?

    A: Gravitational pull is the invisible force that causes massive objects to pull other objects towards them. For instance, when a person jumps up in the air, it is the earth’s gravitational pull that causes him to return to the ground. All massive objects have gravity, and the bigger they are, the more gravitational pull they produce.
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  • What is the difference between hydraulics and pneumatics?

    Q: What is the difference between hydraulics and pneumatics?

    A: The difference between hydraulics and pneumatics is the medium used in each system to perform work. Hydraulics employ fluids, such as oils, while pneumatics utilize compressed gases, such as carbon dioxide or atmospheric air.
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  • How does streamlining reduce air resistance?

    Q: How does streamlining reduce air resistance?

    A: Streamlining reduces air resistance by providing a smooth surface over which air flows easily and uniformly. Without streamlining, eddies formed on the trailing edges of objects create turbulent, low-pressure areas and increase air resistance, also known as drag.
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  • How is wind energy used today?

    Q: How is wind energy used today?

    A: Wind energy is mainly used to generate electricity. The main instrument used to capture this energy is the wind turbine, which is comprised of three or four rotating blades connected to a drive shaft. Wind flows over the blades of the wind turbine, causing them to turn. This kinetic energy from turning is converted to electrical energy for transmission to homes and businesses.
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