Molecular Biology & DNA

A:

Chromosomes assist in the process of cell division by distributing DNA. They act as a container to hold in the DNA molecules.

See Full Answer
  • Why is DNA called the blueprint of life?

    Q: Why is DNA called the blueprint of life?

    A: Just as blueprints direct the building of a house, DNA molecules contain the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of a living organism. The DNA of eukaryotic organisms such as plants and animals is organized into linear chromosomes and stored within the nucleus of every cell.
    See Full Answer
  • What makes up the backbone of the DNA molecule?

    Q: What makes up the backbone of the DNA molecule?

    A: Two components make the backbone in DNA, being the deoxy-ribose and phosphate molecules. These molecules link together in a staggered pattern where the deoxy-ribose and phosphate molecules follow one another, like the backbone of a zipper. Deoxy-ribose is a type of sugar molecule where the adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine molecules attach a covalent bond. The phosphate molecules bond with the deoxy-ribose molecule acting like anchors in DNA.
    See Full Answer
  • What are the repeating units that DNA is made of called?

    Q: What are the repeating units that DNA is made of called?

    A: DNA is made of repeating units called nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. Adenine binds with thymine, and guanine binds with cytosine.
    See Full Answer
  • What is a gene chip?

    Q: What is a gene chip?

    A: A DNA microchip or gene chip is a tiny chip that has many single strands of the DNA from a specific gene attached to it. Sometimes a microchip has more than one gene's DNA on it or different variations of a gene. It is used to test for gene mutations, such as the ones that are thought to be responsible for a larger percentage of hereditary breast cancer cases.
    See Full Answer
  • Why did Gregor Mendel use pea plants in his research?

    Q: Why did Gregor Mendel use pea plants in his research?

    A: Gregor Mendel used pea plants in his research on heredity because they had characteristics that were consistent and easy to recognize. Pea plants had other qualities that also made them ideal for cross-pollination.
    See Full Answer
  • What is RNA primase?

    Q: What is RNA primase?

    A: According to Scitable, RNA primase is an enzyme involved in the replication of DNA strands during cell division. It goes over a single DNA strand and creates RNA sequences called primers, which transcribe DNA into RNA. These short sequences of RNA are complementary to the DNA strand they were hovering over, and serve as a template for a new strand of DNA.
    See Full Answer
  • What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle?

    Q: What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle?

    A: The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that the genetic variation in a population stays constant over generations in the absence of disruptive factors. The concept predicts that when mating occurs randomly in a vast population, the allele and genotype frequencies remain consistent because they are in equilibrium.
    See Full Answer
  • What makes up the rungs of the DNA molecule?

    Q: What makes up the rungs of the DNA molecule?

    A: As shown on the NIH Genetics Home Reference site, when DNA molecules are represented as ladders, the rungs represent the base pairs of the DNA. The bases in DNA are often represented as G, A, T and C, which stand for guanine, adenine, thymine and cytosine. When two strands of DNA form a double-strand helix, the bases pair up in the middle of the molecule.
    See Full Answer
  • What is the function of a centrosome?

    Q: What is the function of a centrosome?

    A: Centrosomes are organelles responsible for the organization and nucleation of microtubules in animal cells and also regulate the cell cycle during cellular division. When the nuclear membrane breaks down during mitosis, the chromosomes interact with the centrosome nucleated microtubules to build the mitotic spindle. The centrosome plays a key role in efficient mitosis, but it is not considered essential.
    See Full Answer
  • Why is mitosis important?

    Q: Why is mitosis important?

    A: Mitosis is important because it is essential for growth and repair in the body. Mitosis happens when a parent cell divides, creating two identical copies, referred to as daughter cells. During this process, it is essential that the daughter cells are exactly the same with the same copies of DNA.
    See Full Answer
  • What is genetic splicing?

    Q: What is genetic splicing?

    A: Genetic splicing is the process in which an organism's DNA is cut and another gene is added. It is used so single-celled organisms can produce certain products, such as insulin, and produces genetically altered organisms.
    See Full Answer
  • What is protein turnover?

    Q: What is protein turnover?

    A: Protein turnover refers to the degradation of proteins over time. It reflects the balance between a cells synthesis of protein and that proteins breakdown. This factor determines the concentration of a protein existing within a cell.
    See Full Answer
  • What holds the nucleotides in one strand of DNA together?

    Q: What holds the nucleotides in one strand of DNA together?

    A: Nucleotides are held together by two types of bonds: phosphodiester bonds and hydrogen bonds. Education Portal describes phosphodiester bonds as bonds that link nucleotides into linear chains. According to Cambridge Physics, hydrogen bonds act as a bridge that connects two parallel rows of nucleotides. This connection aids in the formation of DNA's distinctive double-helix structure.
    See Full Answer
  • Why do plant cells have bigger vacuoles than animal cells?

    Q: Why do plant cells have bigger vacuoles than animal cells?

    A: Plant cell vacuoles serve the same vital storage functions for nutrients, water and wastes as those in animal cells but are much larger because they also provide structural stiffness in combination with the plant's cell walls. This is why water-starved plants droop; their cells have essentially deflated. If a living but wilted plant once again receives sufficient water, it regains its former stiffness as the vacuoles refill.
    See Full Answer
  • Where is genetic information stored?

    Q: Where is genetic information stored?

    A: Genetic information is stored in several places, which are DNA molecules, genes, chromosomes, mitochondria and the genome. Different amounts and types of genetic information are stored in these locations. The majority of genetic information is stored within individual DNA molecules, although it is found in other cellular locations as well.
    See Full Answer
  • Does baldness come from your mother's father?

    Q: Does baldness come from your mother's father?

    A: Some scientists have concluded that male pattern baldness is handed down via a faulty gene through the male's maternal line. In other words, a man can get an idea of how his hair loss is likely to proceed from the appearance of men in his mother's family. The suspicious gene is in the X chromosome, which men inherit from their mothers.
    See Full Answer
  • What is the main function of nucleic acids?

    Q: What is the main function of nucleic acids?

    A: Nucleic acids are biochemical macromolecules that store and transfer genetic information in the cell. They use their stored genetic information to direct the synthesis of new proteins in the cell. New proteins can be synthesized by the ribosomes from the DNA and genes held in the nucleic acids.
    See Full Answer
  • What is spermatozoa?

    Q: What is spermatozoa?

    A: Spermatozoa, also referred to as sperm, are male reproductive cells. Sperm occur in several different forms, and are essential components for reproduction. Sperm vary slightly in physical composition, but have distinct body shapes, characterized by heads and long singular tails.
    See Full Answer
  • What is the difference between plant and animal tissues?

    Q: What is the difference between plant and animal tissues?

    A: One main difference between plant and animal tissue is that plant tissue has a cell wall while animal tissue only has a cell membrane. In addition, plant tissue contains chlorophyll, a substance that is absent from animal tissue.
    See Full Answer
  • What do hox genes do?

    Q: What do hox genes do?

    A: Hox genes control the development of an organism. Specifically, they are a set of transcription factor genes that determine the anterior-posterior axis and the segments of an organism's body.
    See Full Answer
  • What is an analogy for mitochondria?

    Q: What is an analogy for mitochondria?

    A: One common analogy for the mitochondria (singular mitochondrion) is a powerhouse, as mitochondria create energy for the cell. Mitochondria are sometimes called the furnace of the cell as well. Like a powerhouse or furnace, mitochondria take in basic fuel stuff and generate energy from it: a furnace generates heat energy, and a powerhouse generates electricity, whereas mitochondria generate ATP.
    See Full Answer

Explore Biology