Geology

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The fossil record refers to the collection of physical and research evidence that paleontologists and geologists have used to prove the veracity of evolutionary theory. The physical evidence in the fossil record comes from fossilized remains of prehistoric animals.

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  • What Is a Mineral Resource?

    Q: What Is a Mineral Resource?

    A: A mineral resource is the concentration of materials that are of economic interest in or on the crust of the Earth. Almost all minerals found on Earth are used in one way or another for economic benefit. Examples of minerals include gold, gravel, sand, aluminum, copper, limestone, clay and diamond.
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  • How Do Petrified Fossils Form?

    Q: How Do Petrified Fossils Form?

    A: According to the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, petrified fossils form when mineral deposits replace the bones of dead creatures inside hardened sediment. Over time, these deposits completely replace the remains, forming an image of the bones out of solid rock.
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  • How Does Sedimentary Rock Form?

    Q: How Does Sedimentary Rock Form?

    A: According to the National Park Service, sedimentary rock forms when mud and sand are deposited into layers on the earth’s surface and later buried. The buried mud and sand is compacted by the weight of the overlying layers of earth until they harden and form solid rock.
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  • How Is Sulfur Mined?

    Q: How Is Sulfur Mined?

    A: At the beginning of the 1900s, the Frasch process of mining sulfur became the most popular way of extracting it. However, by the end of the 1900s, most sulfur has been manufactured by recovering it from petroleum and gas.
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  • What Is Dry Lava Called?

    Q: What Is Dry Lava Called?

    A: Dry lava is called igneous rock. The superheated molten rock that reaches the surface in an eruption is called lava, and lava may flow for miles before cooling.
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  • How Do You Turn Copper Green?

    Q: How Do You Turn Copper Green?

    A: To turn copper green, create a verdigris paina by rubbing the metal with a vinegar and salt solution. Before you begin, gather some steel wool, a bowl, paper towels, dish soap, baking soda and a finishing wax or lacquer.
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  • What Are Metamorphic Rocks Used For?

    Q: What Are Metamorphic Rocks Used For?

    A: Metamorphic rocks are used for roofing material, decorative gardening stone, the base for snooker tables, building material, sculpture material and paving material. Metamorphic rocks come in three different types: slate, marble and schist.
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  • What Is Clay Soil?

    Q: What Is Clay Soil?

    A: Clay soil is composed of tiny particles that are hard and able to become easily compacted. This compaction makes it difficult to plant or even shovel within the soil.
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  • What Is the Hardest Mineral in the World?

    Q: What Is the Hardest Mineral in the World?

    A: The hardest natural mineral in the world is lonsdaleite, a rare mineral made of carbon atoms. This mineral can withstand up to 58 percent more stress than diamond, according to a report by Jessica Griggs of NewScientist.
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  • How Do Fossil Fuels Form?

    Q: How Do Fossil Fuels Form?

    A: Fossil fuels are formed the gradual accumulation of organic remains on the sea floor. As the accumulation rate increases, the organic remains are subjected to heat and pressure, which leads to fossil-fuel formation.
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  • What Rock Is Formed When Magma Cools at the Earth's Surface?

    Q: What Rock Is Formed When Magma Cools at the Earth's Surface?

    A: The specific type of rock that forms when magma cools at the Earth's surface is extrusive igneous rock. Igneous rock forms when magma cools, but where the magma cools determines the type of igneous rock that forms. Igneous rock gets its name from the Greek word for fire and is so called due to the extremely hot liquid from which the rocks originate.
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  • What Is the Texture of Granite?

    Q: What Is the Texture of Granite?

    A: Granite has a coarse to very coarse grained texture. It is typically granular and can be porphyritic with well-shaped large crystals of feldspar. Its structure contains cavities wherein well-formed crystals project.
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  • What Is the Difference Between a Hill and a Mountain?

    Q: What Is the Difference Between a Hill and a Mountain?

    A: Many geologists classify a landform as a mountain if it is at least 300 meters or more above its surrounding topography. Mountains have steep sloping sides, rounded or sharp ridges, and a peak or summit. Hills are not as high or steep, but they do typically have an obvious summit.
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  • How Do You Tell If Something Is Real Crystal?

    Q: How Do You Tell If Something Is Real Crystal?

    A: While it's often necessary for an expert to examine the item, crystal can be distinguished by its ability to cast rainbow colors when held up to the light. Real crystal also contains lead, so it is heavier than glass and reverberates a distinct ringing sound when struck.
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  • Is Salt a Non-Renewable Resource?

    Q: Is Salt a Non-Renewable Resource?

    A: Salt, or sodium chloride, is a non-renewable resource. A resource is defined as renewable only if it is self-replenishing. While new salt is being formed by natural processes in the earth, the timescale for that formation is too vast for salt to be considered self-replenishing in terms of human use.
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  • What Are the Four Processes That Result in the Formation of Minerals?

    Q: What Are the Four Processes That Result in the Formation of Minerals?

    A: Minerals are formed by organic processes, crystallization, melting and crystallographic transformations that occur in the mineral's solid state. Crystallographic transformations generally occur with a change in the pressure or temperature in the material surrounding the mineral deposit.
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  • How Deep Is Lake Huron?

    Q: How Deep Is Lake Huron?

    A: The average depth of Lake Huron is approximately 195 feet, but its deepest point reaches 750 feet below the surface. This massive body of water is located between Michigan and Canada, stretching 206 miles long and 183 miles wide.
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  • How Can You Tell If Something Is Real Silver?

    Q: How Can You Tell If Something Is Real Silver?

    A: Real silver is identified by its sound, its lack of magnetic qualities and by its ability to conduct heat. For instance, when tapped together, two silver coins emit a high, clear tone. The bell-like ring continues for a second or two.
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  • Where Do Rocks Come From?

    Q: Where Do Rocks Come From?

    A: Rocks come from magma, which is the molten material found within the earth. When magma cools, either above or below the earth's surface, it crystallizes and forms the igneous rocks that can later be changed into metamorphic or sedimentary rocks. Magma, which can be considered molten rock, is referred to as lava when it reaches the earth's surface.
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  • Why Is a Diamond so Hard?

    Q: Why Is a Diamond so Hard?

    A: The molecular structure of a diamond makes it hard, as diamonds are comprised of carbon atoms linked closely together in a lattice structure. The atoms are linked tightly via covalent bonds wherein two atoms share an electron. A tetrahedral unit is composed of five carbon atoms, with one carbon atom sharing electrons with the other four. An extremely strong molecule is formed from the tetrahedral bonding of five carbon atoms.
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  • Where Can Metamorphic Rocks Be Found?

    Q: Where Can Metamorphic Rocks Be Found?

    A: Metamorphic rocks are most often found in mountainous regions though they can be seen wherever there are signs of geological upheaval in an area. This type of rock is formed by the transformation of another rock type, a change that is usually triggered by tremendous heat, pressure or other violent phenomena. The forces that cause metamorphic rocks to form are so great that they change not only the appearance but also the chemical composition of an existing rock.
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