Geology

A:

Chemical weathering is the process by which a material breaks down into its component elements through the action of a chemical agent. This type of weathering requires precise temperature conditions and the presence of a chemically-laden fluid. Substances capable of causing chemical weathering include water and acids.

See Full Answer
Filed Under:
  • What is the fossil record?

    Q: What is the fossil record?

    A: The fossil record refers to the collection of physical and research evidence that paleontologists and geologists have used to prove the veracity of evolutionary theory. The physical evidence in the fossil record comes from fossilized remains of prehistoric animals.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are the four processes that result in the formation of minerals?

    Q: What are the four processes that result in the formation of minerals?

    A: Minerals are formed by organic processes, crystallization, melting and crystallographic transformations that occur in the mineral's solid state. Crystallographic transformations generally occur with a change in the pressure or temperature in the material surrounding the mineral deposit.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How is quartz mined?

    Q: How is quartz mined?

    A: The Encyclopedia of Arkansas explains that commercial mining of quartz is rare and occasionally consists of the use of explosives to first expose the quartz, followed by the operation of small hand tools such as chisels and rock picks to extract portions of the mineral from a quarry. Quartz is quite sensitive to temperature changes, so miners prefer not to use explosives unless absolutely necessary.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How much is topaz worth?

    Q: How much is topaz worth?

    A: The market value of topaz varies greatly, ranging from approximately $8 to $749 per carat as of September 2014. Its worth is determined by a number of factors such as weight, color, clarity, cut and shape. A gemologist must appraise the gem to provide an exact estimate.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Does sand dissolve in water?

    Q: Does sand dissolve in water?

    A: Sand does not dissolve in water. Sand is mostly made of fine quartz, which does not dissolve in water. Sand does dissolve in certain hot acids.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the difference between soil and sand?

    Q: What is the difference between soil and sand?

    A: Soil is made up of liquids, solids and gases that form on the surface of land, while sand is a natural material that consists of at least 85 percent sand-sized particles. Soil consists mostly of organic matter, such as decomposing animals and plants and minerals. The most common sand found throughout the world is made up of quartz, or silicon dioxide.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are metamorphic rocks used for?

    Q: What are metamorphic rocks used for?

    A: Metamorphic rocks are used for roofing material, decorative gardening stone, the base for snooker tables, building material, sculpture material and paving material. Metamorphic rocks come in three different types: slate, marble and schist.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the texture of granite?

    Q: What is the texture of granite?

    A: Granite has a coarse to very coarse grained texture. It is typically granular and can be porphyritic with well-shaped large crystals of feldspar. Its structure contains cavities wherein well-formed crystals project.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the hardness of coal?

    Q: What is the hardness of coal?

    A: The most common type of coal is anthracite, which has a hardness of 2.2 when compared to the Moh's scale of mineral hardness, according to the Ted Pella website. However, since coal is not a mineral, it is not officially measured in this way.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How is sulfur mined?

    Q: How is sulfur mined?

    A: At the beginning of the 1900s, the Frasch process of mining sulfur became the most popular way of extracting it. However, by the end of the 1900s, most sulfur has been manufactured by recovering it from petroleum and gas.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is clay soil?

    Q: What is clay soil?

    A: Clay soil is composed of tiny particles that are hard and able to become easily compacted. This compaction makes it difficult to plant or even shovel within the soil.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are the disadvantages of coal?

    Q: What are the disadvantages of coal?

    A: The primary disadvantages of coal stem from its adverse health and environmental effects. Burning coal produces harmful waste, including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphuric acids and arsenic. Coal-fired power plants are responsible for roughly 24,000 premature deaths each year in the United States, with 2,800 deaths from lung cancer alone.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Where do crystals grow?

    Q: Where do crystals grow?

    A: Mineral crystals form at the surface and deep within the Earth. They grow from vapors that contain plenty of mineral components. Many crystals form in volcanic locations where hot gases encounter cool temperatures.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What rock is formed when magma cools at the Earth's surface?

    Q: What rock is formed when magma cools at the Earth's surface?

    A: The specific type of rock that forms when magma cools at the Earth's surface is extrusive igneous rock. Igneous rock forms when magma cools, but where the magma cools determines the type of igneous rock that forms. Igneous rock gets its name from the Greek word for fire and is so called due to the extremely hot liquid from which the rocks originate.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Where are mountains found?

    Q: Where are mountains found?

    A: Mountains are found on every continent in the world. Though there are some single-standing mountains, they are most often found in groups known as mountain ranges. Some mountains arise from volcanic eruptions, while others have been formed by the shifting of tectonic plates. Thus, mountains are commonly seen at the intersection of tectonic plates and in places where the Earth's crust is relatively thin.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How deep is Lake Huron?

    Q: How deep is Lake Huron?

    A: The average depth of Lake Huron is approximately 195 feet, but its deepest point reaches 750 feet below the surface. This massive body of water is located between Michigan and Canada, stretching 206 miles long and 183 miles wide.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the outer core?

    Q: What is the outer core?

    A: The outer core is part of the core, which is one of the three major layers of the Earth. The core is the deepest and hottest layer and is mostly composed of metals, and it is beneath the Earth's mantle. The outer core is the first layer of the core, and it extends to a depth of approximately 2,890 kilometers below the Earth's crust and measures 2,300 kilometers thick.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are igneous rocks used for?

    Q: What are igneous rocks used for?

    A: Igneous rocks are often used for construction because of their durability. Igneous rocks can also be separated to access the various valuable metals and minerals inside them. Igneous rocks form as magma comes to or near the surface of the Earth; cooling and hardening because of its distance from the inner parts of the Earth where magma forms.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How is shale formed?

    Q: How is shale formed?

    A: Shale forms from the pressure of layers of sediment compressing bits of silt that settle into the clay on the bottom of bodies of water. The compressed clay and silt become shale over time. Shale is a sedimentary rock.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How do fossil fuels form?

    Q: How do fossil fuels form?

    A: Fossil fuels are formed the gradual accumulation of organic remains on the sea floor. As the accumulation rate increases, the organic remains are subjected to heat and pressure, which leads to fossil-fuel formation.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How can you tell if something is real silver?

    Q: How can you tell if something is real silver?

    A: Real silver is identified by its sound, its lack of magnetic qualities and by its ability to conduct heat. For instance, when tapped together, two silver coins emit a high, clear tone. The bell-like ring continues for a second or two.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under: