Geology

A:

Mountains are found on every continent in the world. Though there are some single-standing mountains, they are most often found in groups known as mountain ranges. Some mountains arise from volcanic eruptions, while others have been formed by the shifting of tectonic plates. Thus, mountains are commonly seen at the intersection of tectonic plates and in places where the Earth's crust is relatively thin.

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  • What is the texture of granite?

    Q: What is the texture of granite?

    A: Granite has a coarse to very coarse grained texture. It is typically granular and can be porphyritic with well-shaped large crystals of feldspar. Its structure contains cavities wherein well-formed crystals project.
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  • What are metamorphic rocks used for?

    Q: What are metamorphic rocks used for?

    A: Metamorphic rocks are used for roofing material, decorative gardening stone, the base for snooker tables, building material, sculpture material and paving material. Metamorphic rocks come in three different types: slate, marble and schist.
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  • How deep is Lake Huron?

    Q: How deep is Lake Huron?

    A: The average depth of Lake Huron is approximately 195 feet, but its deepest point reaches 750 feet below the surface. This massive body of water is located between Michigan and Canada, stretching 206 miles long and 183 miles wide.
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  • How do fossil fuels form?

    Q: How do fossil fuels form?

    A: Fossil fuels are formed the gradual accumulation of organic remains on the sea floor. As the accumulation rate increases, the organic remains are subjected to heat and pressure, which leads to fossil-fuel formation.
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  • Where can you find geodes?

    Q: Where can you find geodes?

    A: Geodes are mostly found in deserts, volcanic ash beds and areas with limestone throughout the world. In the United States, common geode sites include Arizona, California, Iowa, Nevada and Utah. The most abundant geode sites in California are Riverside and Imperial counties.
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  • Where do rocks come from?

    Q: Where do rocks come from?

    A: Rocks come from magma, which is the molten material found within the earth. When magma cools, either above or below the earth's surface, it crystallizes and forms the igneous rocks that can later be changed into metamorphic or sedimentary rocks. Magma, which can be considered molten rock, is referred to as lava when it reaches the earth's surface.
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  • Why is a diamond so hard?

    Q: Why is a diamond so hard?

    A: The molecular structure of a diamond makes it hard, as diamonds are comprised of carbon atoms linked closely together in a lattice structure. The atoms are linked tightly via covalent bonds wherein two atoms share an electron. A tetrahedral unit is composed of five carbon atoms, with one carbon atom sharing electrons with the other four. An extremely strong molecule is formed from the tetrahedral bonding of five carbon atoms.
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  • What is clay soil?

    Q: What is clay soil?

    A: Clay soil is composed of tiny particles that are hard and able to become easily compacted. This compaction makes it difficult to plant or even shovel within the soil.
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  • What is the importance of geology in civil engineering?

    Q: What is the importance of geology in civil engineering?

    A: Geology is the study of earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials and the effects of the natural forces acting upon them and is important to civil engineering because all work performed by civil engineers involves earth and its features. Fundamental understanding of geology is so important that it is a requirement in university-level civil engineering programs.
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  • What are the disadvantages of coal?

    Q: What are the disadvantages of coal?

    A: The primary disadvantages of coal stem from its adverse health and environmental effects. Burning coal produces harmful waste, including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphuric acids and arsenic. Coal-fired power plants are responsible for roughly 24,000 premature deaths each year in the United States, with 2,800 deaths from lung cancer alone.
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  • What are the four processes that result in the formation of minerals?

    Q: What are the four processes that result in the formation of minerals?

    A: Minerals are formed by organic processes, crystallization, melting and crystallographic transformations that occur in the mineral's solid state. Crystallographic transformations generally occur with a change in the pressure or temperature in the material surrounding the mineral deposit.
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  • What is the hardest mineral in the world?

    Q: What is the hardest mineral in the world?

    A: The hardest natural mineral in the world is lonsdaleite, a rare mineral made of carbon atoms. This mineral can withstand up to 58 percent more stress than diamond, according to a report by Jessica Griggs of NewScientist.
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  • What is the difference between a hill and a mountain?

    Q: What is the difference between a hill and a mountain?

    A: Many geologists classify a landform as a mountain if it is at least 300 meters or more above its surrounding topography. Mountains have steep sloping sides, rounded or sharp ridges, and a peak or summit. Hills are not as high or steep, but they do typically have an obvious summit.
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  • How is an isthmus formed?

    Q: How is an isthmus formed?

    A: Isthmuses, which are narrow strips of land connecting two land masses and separating two bodies of water, are formed in various ways, depending on the geology of the areas in which they occur. These geological changes to form isthmuses may involve the movement of tectonic plates, the drowning of landmass due to fault structures, volcanic activity, and the movement of waves and tides.
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  • How is sandstone formed?

    Q: How is sandstone formed?

    A: Sandstone forms over the course of centuries, as deposits of sand accumulate in rivers, lakes or on the ocean floor, and the sand blends with calcite or quarts and then undergoes compression. After enough time goes by, the pressure pushes all of these elements together to create sandstone. Because not all sand is identical but instead comes in a variety of colors and grain textures, each formation has a unique appearance.
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  • Is salt a non-renewable resource?

    Q: Is salt a non-renewable resource?

    A: Salt, or sodium chloride, is a non-renewable resource. A resource is defined as renewable only if it is self-replenishing. While new salt is being formed by natural processes in the earth, the timescale for that formation is too vast for salt to be considered self-replenishing in terms of human use.
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  • What is the parent rock of gneiss?

    Q: What is the parent rock of gneiss?

    A: Possible parent rocks of gneiss are granite, shale, gabbro or diorite. Some rocks metamorphose, or change, from one particular kind of rock, but gneiss forms from one of several types. Another name for the parent rock is the protolith.
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  • How much does a grain of sand weigh?

    Q: How much does a grain of sand weigh?

    A: An average grain of sand weighs approximately 50 micrograms, and a grain of very fine sand can weigh as little as 350 nanograms. The size of grains of sand vary because they are not uniform.
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  • What is absolute dating?

    Q: What is absolute dating?

    A: Absolute dating is a method of determining the specific date of a paleontological or archaeological artifact or location based on a specific time scale or calendar. Scientists base absolute dating on measurable physical or chemical changes or on written records of events.
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  • What is a mine-cut diamond?

    Q: What is a mine-cut diamond?

    A: Mine-cut diamonds are typically square or slightly oval and have a deeper crown and pavilion, or top and bottom, than modern stones. "Mine cut" does not refer to the place the diamond was faceted, but rather to its overall shape and brilliance.
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  • How do petrified fossils form?

    Q: How do petrified fossils form?

    A: According to the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, petrified fossils form when mineral deposits replace the bones of dead creatures inside hardened sediment. Over time, these deposits completely replace the remains, forming an image of the bones out of solid rock.
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