Geology

A:

Granite has a coarse to very coarse grained texture. It is typically granular and can be porphyritic with well-shaped large crystals of feldspar. Its structure contains cavities wherein well-formed crystals project.

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  • Where do crystals grow?

    Q: Where do crystals grow?

    A: Mineral crystals form at the surface and deep within the Earth. They grow from vapors that contain plenty of mineral components. Many crystals form in volcanic locations where hot gases encounter cool temperatures.
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  • How do you tell if something is real crystal?

    Q: How do you tell if something is real crystal?

    A: While it's often necessary for an expert to examine the item, crystal can be distinguished by its ability to cast rainbow colors when held up to the light. Real crystal also contains lead, so it is heavier than glass and reverberates a distinct ringing sound when struck.
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  • Where are mountains found?

    Q: Where are mountains found?

    A: Mountains are found on every continent in the world. Though there are some single-standing mountains, they are most often found in groups known as mountain ranges. Some mountains arise from volcanic eruptions, while others have been formed by the shifting of tectonic plates. Thus, mountains are commonly seen at the intersection of tectonic plates and in places where the Earth's crust is relatively thin.
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  • What is sedimentary rock?

    Q: What is sedimentary rock?

    A: Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of mud, clay, sand and other small particles on the surface of the Earth. Sedimentation can occur in many different environments, including lakes, rivers, deserts and oceans. The sediment is deposited in layers that are compressed over time and turned into solid rock.
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  • What causes chemical weathering?

    Q: What causes chemical weathering?

    A: Chemical weathering is the process by which a material breaks down into its component elements through the action of a chemical agent. This type of weathering requires precise temperature conditions and the presence of a chemically-laden fluid. Substances capable of causing chemical weathering include water and acids.
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  • How much is topaz worth?

    Q: How much is topaz worth?

    A: The market value of topaz varies greatly, ranging from approximately $8 to $749 per carat as of September 2014. Its worth is determined by a number of factors such as weight, color, clarity, cut and shape. A gemologist must appraise the gem to provide an exact estimate.
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  • What is a mineral resource?

    Q: What is a mineral resource?

    A: A mineral resource is the concentration of materials that are of economic interest in or on the crust of the Earth. Almost all minerals found on Earth are used in one way or another for economic benefit. Examples of minerals include gold, gravel, sand, aluminum, copper, limestone, clay and diamond.
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  • What is the fossil record?

    Q: What is the fossil record?

    A: The fossil record refers to the collection of physical and research evidence that paleontologists and geologists have used to prove the veracity of evolutionary theory. The physical evidence in the fossil record comes from fossilized remains of prehistoric animals.
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  • What is the importance of rocks?

    Q: What is the importance of rocks?

    A: Rocks have a broad range of uses that makes them significantly important to human life. For instance, rocks are used in construction, for manufacturing substances and making medicine and for the production of gas. Rocks are also extremely vital to scientists as they provide clues about the Earth’s history.
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  • How do fossil fuels form?

    Q: How do fossil fuels form?

    A: Fossil fuels are formed the gradual accumulation of organic remains on the sea floor. As the accumulation rate increases, the organic remains are subjected to heat and pressure, which leads to fossil-fuel formation.
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  • How is shale formed?

    Q: How is shale formed?

    A: Shale forms from the pressure of layers of sediment compressing bits of silt that settle into the clay on the bottom of bodies of water. The compressed clay and silt become shale over time. Shale is a sedimentary rock.
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  • How do petrified fossils form?

    Q: How do petrified fossils form?

    A: According to the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, petrified fossils form when mineral deposits replace the bones of dead creatures inside hardened sediment. Over time, these deposits completely replace the remains, forming an image of the bones out of solid rock.
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  • What is the parent rock of gneiss?

    Q: What is the parent rock of gneiss?

    A: Possible parent rocks of gneiss are granite, shale, gabbro or diorite. Some rocks metamorphose, or change, from one particular kind of rock, but gneiss forms from one of several types. Another name for the parent rock is the protolith.
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  • Is salt a non-renewable resource?

    Q: Is salt a non-renewable resource?

    A: Salt, or sodium chloride, is a non-renewable resource. A resource is defined as renewable only if it is self-replenishing. While new salt is being formed by natural processes in the earth, the timescale for that formation is too vast for salt to be considered self-replenishing in terms of human use.
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  • What is exfoliation geology?

    Q: What is exfoliation geology?

    A: Exfoliation geology is a type of rock weathering where the rock's layers peel off in whole sheets instead of grain by grain. Large-scale exfoliation occurs due to the mechanics of gravity on a curved surface, while small-scale exfoliation is due to chemical weathering.
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  • How much does a grain of sand weigh?

    Q: How much does a grain of sand weigh?

    A: An average grain of sand weighs approximately 50 micrograms, and a grain of very fine sand can weigh as little as 350 nanograms. The size of grains of sand vary because they are not uniform.
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  • How is quartz mined?

    Q: How is quartz mined?

    A: The Encyclopedia of Arkansas explains that commercial mining of quartz is rare and occasionally consists of the use of explosives to first expose the quartz, followed by the operation of small hand tools such as chisels and rock picks to extract portions of the mineral from a quarry. Quartz is quite sensitive to temperature changes, so miners prefer not to use explosives unless absolutely necessary.
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  • What is the importance of geology in civil engineering?

    Q: What is the importance of geology in civil engineering?

    A: Geology is the study of earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials and the effects of the natural forces acting upon them and is important to civil engineering because all work performed by civil engineers involves earth and its features. Fundamental understanding of geology is so important that it is a requirement in university-level civil engineering programs.
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  • What is absolute dating?

    Q: What is absolute dating?

    A: Absolute dating is a method of determining the specific date of a paleontological or archaeological artifact or location based on a specific time scale or calendar. Scientists base absolute dating on measurable physical or chemical changes or on written records of events.
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  • What are metamorphic rocks used for?

    Q: What are metamorphic rocks used for?

    A: Metamorphic rocks are used for roofing material, decorative gardening stone, the base for snooker tables, building material, sculpture material and paving material. Metamorphic rocks come in three different types: slate, marble and schist.
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  • How is an isthmus formed?

    Q: How is an isthmus formed?

    A: Isthmuses, which are narrow strips of land connecting two land masses and separating two bodies of water, are formed in various ways, depending on the geology of the areas in which they occur. These geological changes to form isthmuses may involve the movement of tectonic plates, the drowning of landmass due to fault structures, volcanic activity, and the movement of waves and tides.
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