Geology

A:

Dry lava is called igneous rock. The superheated molten rock that reaches the surface in an eruption is called lava, and lava may flow for miles before cooling.

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  • How are meteorites formed?

    Q: How are meteorites formed?

    A: Most meteorites that fall to Earth come from the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, where they formed during the early days of the solar system. Occasionally, collisions or gravitational perturbations send one of these objects hurtling toward the sun. If it approaches close to Earth, it may fall into the planet's gravity well.
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  • Where can you find geodes?

    Q: Where can you find geodes?

    A: Geodes are mostly found in deserts, volcanic ash beds and areas with limestone throughout the world. In the United States, common geode sites include Arizona, California, Iowa, Nevada and Utah. The most abundant geode sites in California are Riverside and Imperial counties.
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  • How deep is Lake Huron?

    Q: How deep is Lake Huron?

    A: The average depth of Lake Huron is approximately 195 feet, but its deepest point reaches 750 feet below the surface. This massive body of water is located between Michigan and Canada, stretching 206 miles long and 183 miles wide.
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  • How much is topaz worth?

    Q: How much is topaz worth?

    A: The market value of topaz varies greatly, ranging from approximately $8 to $749 per carat as of September 2014. Its worth is determined by a number of factors such as weight, color, clarity, cut and shape. A gemologist must appraise the gem to provide an exact estimate.
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  • What is the biggest rock in the world?

    Q: What is the biggest rock in the world?

    A: According to About.com, Mount Augustus is the biggest rock in the world. This monolith is located in Western Australia's Golden Outback, 286 miles east of Carnarvon.
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  • What are the four processes that result in the formation of minerals?

    Q: What are the four processes that result in the formation of minerals?

    A: Minerals are formed by organic processes, crystallization, melting and crystallographic transformations that occur in the mineral's solid state. Crystallographic transformations generally occur with a change in the pressure or temperature in the material surrounding the mineral deposit.
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  • What are igneous rocks used for?

    Q: What are igneous rocks used for?

    A: Igneous rocks are often used for construction because of their durability. Igneous rocks can also be separated to access the various valuable metals and minerals inside them. Igneous rocks form as magma comes to or near the surface of the Earth; cooling and hardening because of its distance from the inner parts of the Earth where magma forms.
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  • What are the five characteristics of a mineral?

    Q: What are the five characteristics of a mineral?

    A: Minerals are solid, naturally occurring, inorganic compounds that possess an orderly internal structure and a regular chemical composition. A mineral species has to possess these five characteristics to be regarded as scientifically valid.
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  • What is the outer core?

    Q: What is the outer core?

    A: The outer core is part of the core, which is one of the three major layers of the Earth. The core is the deepest and hottest layer and is mostly composed of metals, and it is beneath the Earth's mantle. The outer core is the first layer of the core, and it extends to a depth of approximately 2,890 kilometers below the Earth's crust and measures 2,300 kilometers thick.
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  • Where are mountains found?

    Q: Where are mountains found?

    A: Mountains are found on every continent in the world. Though there are some single-standing mountains, they are most often found in groups known as mountain ranges. Some mountains arise from volcanic eruptions, while others have been formed by the shifting of tectonic plates. Thus, mountains are commonly seen at the intersection of tectonic plates and in places where the Earth's crust is relatively thin.
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  • How is sulfur mined?

    Q: How is sulfur mined?

    A: At the beginning of the 1900s, the Frasch process of mining sulfur became the most popular way of extracting it. However, by the end of the 1900s, most sulfur has been manufactured by recovering it from petroleum and gas.
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  • Where do crystals grow?

    Q: Where do crystals grow?

    A: Mineral crystals form at the surface and deep within the Earth. They grow from vapors that contain plenty of mineral components. Many crystals form in volcanic locations where hot gases encounter cool temperatures.
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  • What are the disadvantages of coal?

    Q: What are the disadvantages of coal?

    A: The primary disadvantages of coal stem from its adverse health and environmental effects. Burning coal produces harmful waste, including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphuric acids and arsenic. Coal-fired power plants are responsible for roughly 24,000 premature deaths each year in the United States, with 2,800 deaths from lung cancer alone.
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  • Why is limestone important?

    Q: Why is limestone important?

    A: According to the U.S. General Services Administration, limestone is important because it is widely used in architectural applications for walls, decorative trim and veneer. It is less commonly used in making sculptures because of its porosity and softness.
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  • What is the parent rock of gneiss?

    Q: What is the parent rock of gneiss?

    A: Possible parent rocks of gneiss are granite, shale, gabbro or diorite. Some rocks metamorphose, or change, from one particular kind of rock, but gneiss forms from one of several types. Another name for the parent rock is the protolith.
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  • What is the fossil record?

    Q: What is the fossil record?

    A: The fossil record refers to the collection of physical and research evidence that paleontologists and geologists have used to prove the veracity of evolutionary theory. The physical evidence in the fossil record comes from fossilized remains of prehistoric animals.
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  • How do you turn copper green?

    Q: How do you turn copper green?

    A: To turn copper green, create a verdigris paina by rubbing the metal with a vinegar and salt solution. Before you begin, gather some steel wool, a bowl, paper towels, dish soap, baking soda and a finishing wax or lacquer.
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  • What are metamorphic rocks used for?

    Q: What are metamorphic rocks used for?

    A: Metamorphic rocks are used for roofing material, decorative gardening stone, the base for snooker tables, building material, sculpture material and paving material. Metamorphic rocks come in three different types: slate, marble and schist.
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  • What is a mine-cut diamond?

    Q: What is a mine-cut diamond?

    A: Mine-cut diamonds are typically square or slightly oval and have a deeper crown and pavilion, or top and bottom, than modern stones. "Mine cut" does not refer to the place the diamond was faceted, but rather to its overall shape and brilliance.
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  • What is the hardness of coal?

    Q: What is the hardness of coal?

    A: The most common type of coal is anthracite, which has a hardness of 2.2 when compared to the Moh's scale of mineral hardness, according to the Ted Pella website. However, since coal is not a mineral, it is not officially measured in this way.
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  • Does sand dissolve in water?

    Q: Does sand dissolve in water?

    A: Sand does not dissolve in water. Sand is mostly made of fine quartz, which does not dissolve in water. Sand does dissolve in certain hot acids.
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