Geology

A:

To turn copper green, create a verdigris paina by rubbing the metal with a vinegar and salt solution. Before you begin, gather some steel wool, a bowl, paper towels, dish soap, baking soda and a finishing wax or lacquer.

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  • What is the importance of rocks?

    Q: What is the importance of rocks?

    A: Rocks have a broad range of uses that makes them significantly important to human life. For instance, rocks are used in construction, for manufacturing substances and making medicine and for the production of gas. Rocks are also extremely vital to scientists as they provide clues about the Earth’s history.
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  • How do fossil fuels form?

    Q: How do fossil fuels form?

    A: Fossil fuels are formed the gradual accumulation of organic remains on the sea floor. As the accumulation rate increases, the organic remains are subjected to heat and pressure, which leads to fossil-fuel formation.
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  • What is exfoliation geology?

    Q: What is exfoliation geology?

    A: Exfoliation geology is a type of rock weathering where the rock's layers peel off in whole sheets instead of grain by grain. Large-scale exfoliation occurs due to the mechanics of gravity on a curved surface, while small-scale exfoliation is due to chemical weathering.
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  • What is the texture of granite?

    Q: What is the texture of granite?

    A: Granite has a coarse to very coarse grained texture. It is typically granular and can be porphyritic with well-shaped large crystals of feldspar. Its structure contains cavities wherein well-formed crystals project.
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  • How does sedimentary rock form?

    Q: How does sedimentary rock form?

    A: According to the National Park Service, sedimentary rock forms when mud and sand are deposited into layers on the earth’s surface and later buried. The buried mud and sand is compacted by the weight of the overlying layers of earth until they harden and form solid rock.
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  • What is the outer core?

    Q: What is the outer core?

    A: The outer core is part of the core, which is one of the three major layers of the Earth. The core is the deepest and hottest layer and is mostly composed of metals, and it is beneath the Earth's mantle. The outer core is the first layer of the core, and it extends to a depth of approximately 2,890 kilometers below the Earth's crust and measures 2,300 kilometers thick.
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  • Where can metamorphic rocks be found?

    Q: Where can metamorphic rocks be found?

    A: Metamorphic rocks are most often found in mountainous regions though they can be seen wherever there are signs of geological upheaval in an area. This type of rock is formed by the transformation of another rock type, a change that is usually triggered by tremendous heat, pressure or other violent phenomena. The forces that cause metamorphic rocks to form are so great that they change not only the appearance but also the chemical composition of an existing rock.
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  • Where are mountains found?

    Q: Where are mountains found?

    A: Mountains are found on every continent in the world. Though there are some single-standing mountains, they are most often found in groups known as mountain ranges. Some mountains arise from volcanic eruptions, while others have been formed by the shifting of tectonic plates. Thus, mountains are commonly seen at the intersection of tectonic plates and in places where the Earth's crust is relatively thin.
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  • How are minerals formed?

    Q: How are minerals formed?

    A: Minerals are formed under a variety of conditions, including when molten materials cool, when liquids evaporate or cool and under high temperatures and pressures. Minerals are found in the earth's crust and mantle, and many were created when feldspar and quartz reacted with other materials during the formation of the planet.
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  • Why is limestone important?

    Q: Why is limestone important?

    A: According to the U.S. General Services Administration, limestone is important because it is widely used in architectural applications for walls, decorative trim and veneer. It is less commonly used in making sculptures because of its porosity and softness.
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  • How is quartz mined?

    Q: How is quartz mined?

    A: The Encyclopedia of Arkansas explains that commercial mining of quartz is rare and occasionally consists of the use of explosives to first expose the quartz, followed by the operation of small hand tools such as chisels and rock picks to extract portions of the mineral from a quarry. Quartz is quite sensitive to temperature changes, so miners prefer not to use explosives unless absolutely necessary.
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  • What is the hardest mineral in the world?

    Q: What is the hardest mineral in the world?

    A: The hardest natural mineral in the world is lonsdaleite, a rare mineral made of carbon atoms. This mineral can withstand up to 58 percent more stress than diamond, according to a report by Jessica Griggs of NewScientist.
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  • Does sand dissolve in water?

    Q: Does sand dissolve in water?

    A: Sand does not dissolve in water. Sand is mostly made of fine quartz, which does not dissolve in water. Sand does dissolve in certain hot acids.
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  • What is the hardness of coal?

    Q: What is the hardness of coal?

    A: The most common type of coal is anthracite, which has a hardness of 2.2 when compared to the Moh's scale of mineral hardness, according to the Ted Pella website. However, since coal is not a mineral, it is not officially measured in this way.
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  • How can you tell if something is real silver?

    Q: How can you tell if something is real silver?

    A: Real silver is identified by its sound, its lack of magnetic qualities and by its ability to conduct heat. For instance, when tapped together, two silver coins emit a high, clear tone. The bell-like ring continues for a second or two.
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  • What is clay soil?

    Q: What is clay soil?

    A: Clay soil is composed of tiny particles that are hard and able to become easily compacted. This compaction makes it difficult to plant or even shovel within the soil.
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  • What is a mine-cut diamond?

    Q: What is a mine-cut diamond?

    A: Mine-cut diamonds are typically square or slightly oval and have a deeper crown and pavilion, or top and bottom, than modern stones. "Mine cut" does not refer to the place the diamond was faceted, but rather to its overall shape and brilliance.
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  • Where can you find geodes?

    Q: Where can you find geodes?

    A: Geodes are mostly found in deserts, volcanic ash beds and areas with limestone throughout the world. In the United States, common geode sites include Arizona, California, Iowa, Nevada and Utah. The most abundant geode sites in California are Riverside and Imperial counties.
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  • What are the four processes that result in the formation of minerals?

    Q: What are the four processes that result in the formation of minerals?

    A: Minerals are formed by organic processes, crystallization, melting and crystallographic transformations that occur in the mineral's solid state. Crystallographic transformations generally occur with a change in the pressure or temperature in the material surrounding the mineral deposit.
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  • What is a petrified rock?

    Q: What is a petrified rock?

    A: While there's no such thing as petrified rock, petrified wood is fossilized wood. According to YourGemologist, there is no wood actually left in petrified wood, only rock that takes the same form and shape of the wood.
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  • How do you turn copper green?

    Q: How do you turn copper green?

    A: To turn copper green, create a verdigris paina by rubbing the metal with a vinegar and salt solution. Before you begin, gather some steel wool, a bowl, paper towels, dish soap, baking soda and a finishing wax or lacquer.
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