Earth Science

A:

A ring-shaped coral island is called an atoll. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, an atoll is made up of sections of coral reef that form a closed shape around a central lagoon.

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  • Why are deserts hot in the day and cold at night?

    Q: Why are deserts hot in the day and cold at night?

    A: The heat that radiates from the sun and heats up the land begins to heat up the air and then escapes into the atmosphere due to the lack of clouds and humidity. This is the main reason that deserts can be hot during the day but cold during the night.
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  • What causes a monsoon?

    Q: What causes a monsoon?

    A: A monsoon is caused when a low-pressure area built up over a hot landmass reacts with a high-pressure zone over a cool ocean, sending moisture-laden wind toward the low-pressure zone. Once over the landmass, the ocean air rises and forms rain clouds. Dense cloud formation and heavy rains are especially likely to occur if there are higher elevations like with inland mountains.
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  • How does the sun affect the Earth?

    Q: How does the sun affect the Earth?

    A: The sun provides the Earth with energy in the form of heat, which it uses to warm the Earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere. The heat energy found in the atmosphere is one of the major components of the Earth's climate and climate change, according to Windows to the Universe.
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  • Who discovered the chloroplast?

    Q: Who discovered the chloroplast?

    A: Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowsky was the first person to discover the chloroplast. His discovery was the result of his work with lichens. In 1905, he began arguing for the symbiotic origin of the chloroplast and nucleus.
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  • How many volcanoes does Hawai'i have?

    Q: How many volcanoes does Hawai'i have?

    A: Hawai'i has seven primary volcanoes, out of which three are currently active. The eight primary islands that make up the state of Hawai'i are part of a series of volcanoes.
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  • What are types of natural calamities?

    Q: What are types of natural calamities?

    A: Types of natural calamities include hurricanes, earthquakes and tsunamis. Often, these calamities are connected such that one sets off another, as with earthquakes and tsunamis. Natural calamities are differentiated from human-made calamities, such as industrial accidents.
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  • What causes day and night?

    Q: What causes day and night?

    A: The Earth is constantly spinning on its axis, allowing sunlight to shine on different areas of the Earth at different times of the day, creating daytime when the Sun hits a specific area. When the Sun is not shining on a specific area of the Earth, it is nighttime. Since the Sun does not hit all of the Earth at the same time, it is daytime in some parts of the world, while it is nighttime in others.
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  • How does distance from the sea affect temperature?

    Q: How does distance from the sea affect temperature?

    A: Large bodies of water take longer to warm or cool than the land does, so coastal regions generally see lower temperatures during the summer and warmer temperatures during the winter than areas that are further inland. When warm air from the inland areas meets the cool sea air, moisture and water droplets form fog, which is far less common further from the sea.
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  • What would happen if there were no trees on earth?

    Q: What would happen if there were no trees on earth?

    A: Life could not exist on Earth without trees because they produce most of the oxygen that humans and wildlife breathe. Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen using the process of photosynthesis. There would also be no rain without trees, since trees absorb water from the soil and release it through evapotranspiration. Water vapor released through evapotranspiration is the major mechanism by which air is remoistened.
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  • Where is the windiest place in the world?

    Q: Where is the windiest place in the world?

    A: According to the American Museum of Natural History, Antarctica is the windiest place on earth with winds that are regularly exceed 100 miles per hour. Commonwealth Bay in Antarctica regularly experiences winds in excess of 150 miles per hour.
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  • What is the difference between local winds and global winds?

    Q: What is the difference between local winds and global winds?

    A: The term global winds refers to the six major wind belts that encircle the globe. Local winds, however, are the winds, or breezes, that are stirred up by the temperatures and topographical features of a small region or area. This is especially true of coastal areas.
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  • How many minutes of daylight do we gain each day?

    Q: How many minutes of daylight do we gain each day?

    A: In the month of January, between 1.5 to 2 minutes of daylight are gained each day. In February, about 2 1/2 minutes of daylight are gained each day.
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  • What is the smallest volcano in the world?

    Q: What is the smallest volcano in the world?

    A: Cuexcomate is considered the world's smallest volcano, with a diameter of 75 feet. Cuexcomate is located in a suburb of the city of Puebla, N.M. It is considered an inactive volcano.
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  • What technologies are used to explore deserts?

    Q: What technologies are used to explore deserts?

    A: Technologies used to explore deserts include robotic rovers, satellites, online mapping software and image-processing programs. NASA scientists use robotic rovers to explore deserts to prepare for the desert-like terrain located on Mars and the moon.
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  • What are some interesting facts about the Hubbard Glacier?

    Q: What are some interesting facts about the Hubbard Glacier?

    A: The Hubbard Glacier is the largest tidewater glacier in North America. A tidewater glacier is one that flows into the ocean. The glacier is approximately 7 miles wide at its foot and 76 miles long. These measurements are constantly changing as the Hubbard Glacier continues to grow and move forward.
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  • Can tornadoes be predicted?

    Q: Can tornadoes be predicted?

    A: While it is currently not possible to predict a tornado with certainty, organizations like the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issue tornado watches and warnings to areas experiencing tornado-friendly weather conditions. A watch is issued when a tornado is likely to occur, while a warning indicates a more immediate threat.
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  • How are rift valleys formed?

    Q: How are rift valleys formed?

    A: Rift valleys form when tectonic forces deep underground exert a pulling force on the terrain. In areas where this occurs, the land splits into a steep-walled valley with a flat floor. Rift valleys can be very narrow, especially early in their formation.
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  • What are the main causes of flooding?

    Q: What are the main causes of flooding?

    A: Heavy, consistent and prolonged rainfall coupled with the overflowing of rivers and other water channels is one of the main causes of flooding. As rainwater reaches and fills the river channels, the water spreads on the floodplain or the land next to the river and causes flooding.
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  • What is the Great Blue Hole?

    Q: What is the Great Blue Hole?

    A: The Great Blue Hole is an underwater sinkhole frequented by scuba divers for its numerous species of tropical fish and its clear blue waters. Measuring 984 feet across and 410 feet deep, it is located off the coast of Belize, about 62 miles away from Belize City.
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  • How are striations formed?

    Q: How are striations formed?

    A: Striations are a common feature of rocks that have once been overlain by a moving glacier. The scratches on the rock face are generally straight and all are oriented in the same direction, matching the downhill flow of the ice.
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  • What are the characteristics of metamorphic rocks?

    Q: What are the characteristics of metamorphic rocks?

    A: The characteristics of metamorphic rock are that some contain layers and streaks of different colors and textures caused by different minerals. Other metamorphic rocks are more uniform in color and texture and have minerals arranged in parallel layers.
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