Earth Science

A:

Geologists use a seismograph to detect and measure the strength of an earthquake. The modern-day seismograph was invented by John Milne in 1880 while he was studying earthquakes in Japan.

See Full Answer
Filed Under:
  • How Do Glaciers Cause Erosion?

    Q: How Do Glaciers Cause Erosion?

    A: Glaciers erode the land in three primary ways: plucking, abrasion and freeze-thaw. All three manners of erosion combine to make glaciers one of the world’s most powerful agents of erosion.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Is a Person Who Studies Rocks Called?

    Q: What Is a Person Who Studies Rocks Called?

    A: A person who studies rocks is called a geologist. Geologists also study how the Earth is made and how the planet changes in time.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Are the Main Causes of Flooding?

    Q: What Are the Main Causes of Flooding?

    A: Heavy, consistent and prolonged rainfall coupled with the overflowing of rivers and other water channels is one of the main causes of flooding. As rainwater reaches and fills the river channels, the water spreads on the floodplain or the land next to the river and causes flooding.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Is the Earth's Revolution?

    Q: What Is the Earth's Revolution?

    A: The Earth's revolution occurs in two different ways. The Earth revolves around the sun, and it also revolves, or rotates, on its own axis.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How Are Quartz Crystals Grown?

    Q: How Are Quartz Crystals Grown?

    A: Quartz crystals are grown and manufactured using an autoclave. The process creates hydrothermal quartz, which are also known as cultured or synthetic quartz.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How Does Altitude Affect Temperature?

    Q: How Does Altitude Affect Temperature?

    A: Air temperature decreases as altitude increases. Air is a mixture of gases, and at higher altitudes, air pressure decreases, which cools any gas. Air pressure on Earth is estimated to be about 14.7 pounds per square inch at sea level.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Is the Composition of Air?

    Q: What Is the Composition of Air?

    A: Air is a gaseous substance that is composed primarily of nitrogen, oxygen and argon. The air in the atmosphere that surrounds the Earth is approximately 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen and 1 percent argon, with the remainder made up of various other gases including neon, helium and hydrogen.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Is the Difference Between Local Winds and Global Winds?

    Q: What Is the Difference Between Local Winds and Global Winds?

    A: The term global winds refers to the six major wind belts that encircle the globe. Local winds, however, are the winds, or breezes, that are stirred up by the temperatures and topographical features of a small region or area. This is especially true of coastal areas.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Is the Average Temperature of a Swamp?

    Q: What Is the Average Temperature of a Swamp?

    A: The average temperature range of the world's swamps is between 15 C and 35 C. Swamps fall into two categories: swamp forests and shrub swamps. Bogs are not true swamps because they are not forested, but they are often mislabeled as such.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Technologies Are Used to Explore Deserts?

    Q: What Technologies Are Used to Explore Deserts?

    A: Technologies used to explore deserts include robotic rovers, satellites, online mapping software and image-processing programs. NASA scientists use robotic rovers to explore deserts to prepare for the desert-like terrain located on Mars and the moon.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How Do Glaciers Change the Landscape?

    Q: How Do Glaciers Change the Landscape?

    A: Glaciers alter the landscape through erosion of the soil and rocks over which they pass. This erosion process leaves a vertical-walled valley similar to an amphitheater at the glacier's sources, according to Reference.com. As they travel through V-shaped valleys, glaciers transform the valley into a U-shape, grinding away cliffs and the bases of slopes. If the ocean fills these valleys, they become fjords.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How Do Humans Affect the Ecosystem?

    Q: How Do Humans Affect the Ecosystem?

    A: Human activity affects ecosystems in a wide variety of ways, but it primarily does so through agriculture, habitat destruction, water use and fishing. Whenever humans enter a habitat, they tend to reshape it to fit their own needs, destroying the resources that other animals use, which drives them out. The overuse of water drains natural aquifers and alters the local water table, and pollution can negatively affect wildlife populations.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Is the Frost Line Depth in New York City?

    Q: What Is the Frost Line Depth in New York City?

    A: The average frost line depth in New York City is 36 inches. The frost line is the average depth in which the ground water in soil usually freezes. This is also referred to as "frost depth" or "freezing depth."
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Why Are Deserts Hot in the Day and Cold at Night?

    Q: Why Are Deserts Hot in the Day and Cold at Night?

    A: The heat that radiates from the sun and heats up the land begins to heat up the air and then escapes into the atmosphere due to the lack of clouds and humidity. This is the main reason that deserts can be hot during the day but cold during the night.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How Are Striations Formed?

    Q: How Are Striations Formed?

    A: Striations are a common feature of rocks that have once been overlain by a moving glacier. The scratches on the rock face are generally straight and all are oriented in the same direction, matching the downhill flow of the ice.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Causes a Monsoon?

    Q: What Causes a Monsoon?

    A: A monsoon is caused when a low-pressure area built up over a hot landmass reacts with a high-pressure zone over a cool ocean, sending moisture-laden wind toward the low-pressure zone. Once over the landmass, the ocean air rises and forms rain clouds. Dense cloud formation and heavy rains are especially likely to occur if there are higher elevations like with inland mountains.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Can Tornadoes Be Predicted?

    Q: Can Tornadoes Be Predicted?

    A: While it is currently not possible to predict a tornado with certainty, organizations like the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issue tornado watches and warnings to areas experiencing tornado-friendly weather conditions. A watch is issued when a tornado is likely to occur, while a warning indicates a more immediate threat.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Where Is the Windiest Place in the World?

    Q: Where Is the Windiest Place in the World?

    A: According to the American Museum of Natural History, Antarctica is the windiest place on earth with winds that are regularly exceed 100 miles per hour. Commonwealth Bay in Antarctica regularly experiences winds in excess of 150 miles per hour.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Causes Day and Night?

    Q: What Causes Day and Night?

    A: The Earth is constantly spinning on its axis, allowing sunlight to shine on different areas of the Earth at different times of the day, creating daytime when the Sun hits a specific area. When the Sun is not shining on a specific area of the Earth, it is nighttime. Since the Sun does not hit all of the Earth at the same time, it is daytime in some parts of the world, while it is nighttime in others.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What Are Different Types of Tornadoes?

    Q: What Are Different Types of Tornadoes?

    A: There are six different types of tornadoes. The most commonly recognized type is the supercell tornado, the type that causes massive destruction. A gustnado is the opposite; it is very weak. It causes leaves and other debris to swirl around on the ground during a storm.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Why Is a Pothole Called a Pothole?

    Q: Why Is a Pothole Called a Pothole?

    A: The word "pothole" can be split into two distinct morphemes. The first part being "pot," a word derived from Middle English that means "a deep hole," and the second part being "hole," which maintains the same meaning today, that is, a hollowness in the ground.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under: