Earth Science

A:

The main features of a volcano include a vent, a summit crater and a magma chamber. The vent is an opening through which volcanic material is erupted. Volcanoes can have more than one vent. The summit crater is the large concave opening that holds the central vent at the top of the volcano. The magma chamber is the large pool-like structure inside the volcano that holds the magma.

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  • What are the two main types of glaciers?

    Q: What are the two main types of glaciers?

    A: The two main types of glaciers are continental glaciers and alpine glaciers. Continental glaciers are also known as ice sheets because their form and flow are not significantly affected by underlying geographic formations. Alpine glaciers form on mountains and flow down mountain valleys.
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  • What causes global winds?

    Q: What causes global winds?

    A: Global winds refer to the pattern of air movement all around the globe, and they result from the fact that the Earth receives unequal heating from the sun. Not only does the tilt of the Earth's axis mean that different parts of the planet receive disparate amounts of sunlight, but the oceans and lands also heat at different rates. The imbalance in temperature makes heat move toward the poles, both in the wind and in ocean currents. When horizontal variances in air pressure take place as a result, wind occurs.
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  • What is a person who studies rocks called?

    Q: What is a person who studies rocks called?

    A: A person who studies rocks is called a geologist. Geologists also study how the Earth is made and how the planet changes in time.
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  • How are rift valleys formed?

    Q: How are rift valleys formed?

    A: Rift valleys form when tectonic forces deep underground exert a pulling force on the terrain. In areas where this occurs, the land splits into a steep-walled valley with a flat floor. Rift valleys can be very narrow, especially early in their formation.
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  • How does distance from the sea affect temperature?

    Q: How does distance from the sea affect temperature?

    A: Large bodies of water take longer to warm or cool than the land does, so coastal regions generally see lower temperatures during the summer and warmer temperatures during the winter than areas that are further inland. When warm air from the inland areas meets the cool sea air, moisture and water droplets form fog, which is far less common further from the sea.
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  • Why do natural disasters happen?

    Q: Why do natural disasters happen?

    A: There are many different causes for natural disasters; seismic activity, air pressure, ocean currents and soil erosion are the main causes. A natural disaster can cause damage to property, loss of life and effect the economy of the local area.
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  • Who discovered the chloroplast?

    Q: Who discovered the chloroplast?

    A: Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowsky was the first person to discover the chloroplast. His discovery was the result of his work with lichens. In 1905, he began arguing for the symbiotic origin of the chloroplast and nucleus.
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  • What is ecological balance?

    Q: What is ecological balance?

    A: Ecological balance is a theory stipulating that natural conditions, including numbers of various animal and plant species, remain stable on their own through variations over time. The theory, also known as balance of nature, also holds that natural equilibrium can be changed significantly by new species entering an ecosystem, the disappearance of some species, man-made changes to the environment or natural disasters.
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  • What are the main causes of flooding?

    Q: What are the main causes of flooding?

    A: Heavy, consistent and prolonged rainfall coupled with the overflowing of rivers and other water channels is one of the main causes of flooding. As rainwater reaches and fills the river channels, the water spreads on the floodplain or the land next to the river and causes flooding.
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  • What is the difference between high and low tides?

    Q: What is the difference between high and low tides?

    A: A high or low tide occurs based on where the highest or lowest part of the wave hits the shore. A high tide reaches further up on the shore than a low tide. Most coastal regions experience two high tides and two low tides every 24 hours and 50 minutes.
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  • Can we stop the polar ice caps from melting?

    Q: Can we stop the polar ice caps from melting?

    A: Whether or not humankind can keep the polar ice caps from melting is a subject of great debate in which both side cite scientific studies that support their positions. The bulk of scientific and environmental organizations, however, believe that humans can slow or even halt the melting of polar ice caps and global warming by reducing the use of fossil fuels and other man-made chemicals.
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  • How does the sun affect the Earth?

    Q: How does the sun affect the Earth?

    A: The sun provides the Earth with energy in the form of heat, which it uses to warm the Earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere. The heat energy found in the atmosphere is one of the major components of the Earth's climate and climate change, according to Windows to the Universe.
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  • What is a natural system?

    Q: What is a natural system?

    A: In the field of ecology, a natural system is one that exists in nature, independent of any human involvement. The natural system consists of all the physical and biological materials and their intertwined processes
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  • What is collection in the water cycle?

    Q: What is collection in the water cycle?

    A: Collection refers to the process by which water gathers back into bodies of water such as rivers, lakes and oceans. This begins with precipitation, when water falls from the clouds in the form of rain, snow, sleet or hail. A lot of the time, precipitation falls directly into a body of water, but at other times, it soaks into the ground, where plants, people and animals end up drinking it as ground water. Most of the water will end up leaching back into bodies of water through the soil.
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  • How many minutes of daylight do we gain each day?

    Q: How many minutes of daylight do we gain each day?

    A: In the month of January, between 1.5 to 2 minutes of daylight are gained each day. In February, about 2 1/2 minutes of daylight are gained each day.
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  • What is the average temperature of a swamp?

    Q: What is the average temperature of a swamp?

    A: The average temperature range of the world's swamps is between 15 C and 35 C. Swamps fall into two categories: swamp forests and shrub swamps. Bogs are not true swamps because they are not forested, but they are often mislabeled as such.
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  • How do glaciers change the landscape?

    Q: How do glaciers change the landscape?

    A: Glaciers alter the landscape through erosion of the soil and rocks over which they pass. This erosion process leaves a vertical-walled valley similar to an amphitheater at the glacier's sources, according to Reference.com. As they travel through V-shaped valleys, glaciers transform the valley into a U-shape, grinding away cliffs and the bases of slopes. If the ocean fills these valleys, they become fjords.
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  • What are different types of tornadoes?

    Q: What are different types of tornadoes?

    A: There are six different types of tornadoes. The most commonly recognized type is the supercell tornado, the type that causes massive destruction. A gustnado is the opposite; it is very weak. It causes leaves and other debris to swirl around on the ground during a storm.
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  • What causes day and night?

    Q: What causes day and night?

    A: The Earth is constantly spinning on its axis, allowing sunlight to shine on different areas of the Earth at different times of the day, creating daytime when the Sun hits a specific area. When the Sun is not shining on a specific area of the Earth, it is nighttime. Since the Sun does not hit all of the Earth at the same time, it is daytime in some parts of the world, while it is nighttime in others.
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  • Why is a pothole called a pothole?

    Q: Why is a pothole called a pothole?

    A: The word "pothole" can be split into two distinct morphemes. The first part being "pot," a word derived from Middle English that means "a deep hole," and the second part being "hole," which maintains the same meaning today, that is, a hollowness in the ground.
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  • What are the abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem?

    Q: What are the abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem?

    A: Abiotic factors are the nonliving physical and chemical components of an ecosystem, while biotic factors are the living components of an ecosystem. Both types of factors affect reproduction and survival.
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