Chemistry

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Coal is not a mineral because it is organic, and minerals are inorganic. Minerals have a repeating crystalline structure and a homogeneous chemical profile. Coal has neither. It forms over millions of years from the compressed, heated remains of dead plants and animals.

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  • How are liquids different from gases?

    Q: How are liquids different from gases?

    A: The primary difference between liquids and gases is that the constituent molecules of liquids are closer together and move less than those that make up gases. Liquids and gases behave in a number of similar ways, although both differ greatly from solids.
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  • What is the boiling point of oil?

    Q: What is the boiling point of oil?

    A: Oils used in food preparation have a range of boiling points, from about 375 F to about 510 F. The boiling point of oil depends upon the specific type of oil that is being heated as well as its specific purity. Crude oil subjected to refining involves a spectrum of different boiling points to extract the various elements comprising it.
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  • Is water an element, compound or mixture?

    Q: Is water an element, compound or mixture?

    A: Water is a compound made of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. The hydrogen atoms are bonded to the oxygen atom by the sharing of electrons, called a covalent bond.
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  • Where is nitrogen found throughout nature?

    Q: Where is nitrogen found throughout nature?

    A: Nitrogen can be found in all living organisms on Earth while also being present in soil, water and air. It is an important component in biological compounds found all throughout nature.
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  • What is calcium carbonate used for?

    Q: What is calcium carbonate used for?

    A: Calcium carbonate has different uses including as a dietary supplement, an antacid and chalk. Other uses include as limestone and marble in the construction and manufacturing industries. Calcium carbonate has the chemical formula CaCO3.
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  • Where does zinc come from?

    Q: Where does zinc come from?

    A: Zinc is an element drawn from the Earth. The primary producers include China, Australia, Peru, Europe and Canada. Eighty percent of all zinc mines are located underground. Miners remove zinc from volcanic rock, limestone, shale and sandstone. Often, they locate zinc near deposits of lead, copper, gold and silver. When removed from the mine, blende zinc is 25 percent or more sulfur. Processing removes other impurities as well.
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  • What is the smallest subatomic particle?

    Q: What is the smallest subatomic particle?

    A: The smallest subatomic particle is the quark. Quarks make up larger subatomic particles called hadrons, which include baryons and mesons. Three quarks make up composite particles called baryons, and the combination of a quark and an antiquark comprise a meson.
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  • What is the freezing point of sugar water?

    Q: What is the freezing point of sugar water?

    A: The freezing point of a water solution that contains sugar is below zero. Any solute added to a pure water solvent decreases the freezing point of the water; this is called freezing point depression.
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  • What are the two main types of fermentation?

    Q: What are the two main types of fermentation?

    A: The two main types of fermentation are alcoholic and lactic. In alcoholic fermentation molecules are converted into ethanol with the production of carbon dioxide, whereas in lactic fermentation, molecules are converted into lactic acid, and there is no production of carbon dioxide.
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  • What is the freezing point of sulfuric acid?

    Q: What is the freezing point of sulfuric acid?

    A: The freezing point of sulfuric acid is 37 degrees Fahrenheit, or 3 degrees Celsius, in a 98 percent solution where gravity is 1.84, nearly double that of water. Sulfuric acid's boiling point is 640 degrees Fahrenheit, or 338 degrees Celsius.
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  • Are elements named after people?

    Q: Are elements named after people?

    A: Many different elements are named after people. Some are named after the scientist who discovered the element, while others are named in honor of a famous or noteworthy person.
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  • Where is argon found in nature?

    Q: Where is argon found in nature?

    A: Argon is an inert gas found in the Earth's atmosphere. It is the fourth most common gas in the air, behind oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. It has an atomic number of 18 and uses the atomic symbol, Ar, according to About.com.
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  • What are examples of mineral salts?

    Q: What are examples of mineral salts?

    A: Examples of mineral salts include sodium, calcium, ammonium phosphate, potassium, magnesium, chlorine, sulphur and phosphorus. Mineral salts are naturally occurring inorganic substances that are extracted from below the ground surface.
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  • What is the composition of exhaled air?

    Q: What is the composition of exhaled air?

    A: In general, the composition of exhaled air is approximately 78 percent nitrogen,18 percent oxygen and 4 percent carbon dioxide. Inhaled air, by contrast, is about 79 percent nitrogen and 21 percent oxygen.
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  • Is distilled water the same as sterile water?

    Q: Is distilled water the same as sterile water?

    A: Sterile and distilled water are both essentially pure H2O, but each is used for different purposes. Distilled water is distributed for use in laboratories and for ordinary consumption. Sterile water is used in the medical community as a wound cleanser or an intravenous fluid.
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  • How does gunpowder work?

    Q: How does gunpowder work?

    A: HowStuffWorks explains that gunpowder functions through a chemical reaction between the combination of sulfur, charcoal and an oxidizer, usually either saltpeter or niter. The saltpeter acts as an oxidizer, and the sulfur and charcoal combine together to act as fuel. Also commonly referred to as "black powder," gunpowder can be used as both a propellant, as in both guns and fireworks, and as an explosive.
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  • Who discovered sodium chloride?

    Q: Who discovered sodium chloride?

    A: In 1807, Sir Humphrey Davy, an English chemist, discovered how to extract and isolate sodium from its compounds. Since sodium doesn't appear by itself in nature, this discovery lead to better understanding of sodium compounds, such as sodium chloride, which is the primary factor in the salinity of the oceans.
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  • How long does it take to freeze water into ice cubes?

    Q: How long does it take to freeze water into ice cubes?

    A: How long it takes water to become ice depends on the temperature of the water, how much water you have and how cold the freezing environment is. For water to freeze, it must reach 32 degrees Fahrenheit.
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  • What is the most flammable substance in the world?

    Q: What is the most flammable substance in the world?

    A: The most flammable substance in the world is chlorine trifluoride, according to About.com. This substance is so flammable that it does not require an ignition source to combust.
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  • How does solar energy work?

    Q: How does solar energy work?

    A: Solar energy emerges when light energy from the sun strikes a silicon solar panel to produce an electrical current. The silicon in the solar panels can transform light energy into electricity because the movement of electrons in the silicon crystal generates electrical energy.
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  • What is boiling point elevation?

    Q: What is boiling point elevation?

    A: The term boiling point elevation refers to solutions having higher boiling points than pure solvents. Boiling point elevation is a colligative property of a solution.
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