Cells

A:

The consensus among biochemists is that virtually every cell in the human body can break down sugar, usually in the form of glucose, to use as energy. According to the authors of the 5th edition of "Biochemistry," the brain and the kidneys prefer to run on glucose. In fact, the brain favors glucose to such an extent that it only metabolizes other fuel sources after several days of starvation.

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  • What Are the Differences Between Plant Cells and Animal Cells?

    Q: What Are the Differences Between Plant Cells and Animal Cells?

    A: The main difference between plant cells and animals cells is that plant cells possess a cell wall and animal cells do not. Animal cells have an irregular shape, and plant cells have a fixed, rectangular shape.
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  • How Does the Structure of a Muscle Cell Type Relate to Its Function?

    Q: How Does the Structure of a Muscle Cell Type Relate to Its Function?

    A: According to About.com Biology section, there are three different types of muscle cells, and each has a different structure related to its function. Cardiac muscles are designed to contract together; skeletal-muscle cells have ordered striations so that they can contract farther than other muscle cells to move the body; and, visceral-muscle cells are designed to contract slower and remain contracted for long periods of time.
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  • Where Does Translation Occur?

    Q: Where Does Translation Occur?

    A: Translation occurs in the cell, specifically in the cytoplasm. Translation is one of many steps in the creation of protein which is needed to fuel the body.
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  • What Is the Purpose of Cell Division?

    Q: What Is the Purpose of Cell Division?

    A: Cell division has three purposes for an organism: reproduction, growth and maintenance. For single-celled organisms, this is their direct and only method of reproduction, and it serves no other purpose. For multicellular organisms, cell division is a step in reproduction and is necessary for growth and maintenance.
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  • What Does DNA Stand For?

    Q: What Does DNA Stand For?

    A: DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the molecule that carries genetic information in humans and all other living organisms.
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  • Which Organelle Performs Cellular Respiration?

    Q: Which Organelle Performs Cellular Respiration?

    A: According to About.com, cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria. While mitochondria primarily exist to serve as “power plants” for the cell, converting natural resources into usable energy, they also play a role in cellular division, cell growth and cell death.
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  • How Does Skin Regenerate?

    Q: How Does Skin Regenerate?

    A: Skin regenerates by filling the gap between the sides of the cut with newly generated skin cells, starting with the dermis (bottom-most layer of the skin) and working its way up. Very shallow cuts are followed by easy regeneration, as only the stratum basale layer (the deepest layer of skin) of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin) is needed to generate enough cells to repair the damage.
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  • Why Does a Sperm Cell Have a Tail?

    Q: Why Does a Sperm Cell Have a Tail?

    A: Sperm cells have tails primarily for the purpose of swimming. They must move from the vagina up through the female reproductive system.
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  • What Organelle Produces ATP?

    Q: What Organelle Produces ATP?

    A: The mitochondria inside a cell produces ATP, or adenosine triphosphate. Cellular respiration is responsible for ATP production, a process in which ATP production occurs after biochemical energy from nutrients is converted.
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  • What Is the Control Center of a Cell?

    Q: What Is the Control Center of a Cell?

    A: The nucleus is the control center of a cell. The nucleus controls the cell's growth and reproduction and contains the cell's DNA.
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  • How Do Cells Use Energy?

    Q: How Do Cells Use Energy?

    A: Cells use energy in order to grow, regulate metabolism and reproduce. This energy is obtained from a source such as food molecules or light from the sun, and through processes like glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, an energy-rich molecule is then created. The cell can then use the energy in the protein molecule to help it function.
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  • What Is the Function of the Cheek Cell?

    Q: What Is the Function of the Cheek Cell?

    A: A cheek cell, an epithelial cell found in the tissue on the inside lining of the mouth, continually secretes mucus to maintains a moist environment in the mouth. Together with salivary glands that secrete saliva, the cheek cells supply enough moisture in the mouth for enzymes to thrive. This moisture softens food, assists in swallowing and starts digestion.
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  • Why Does a Cell Make a Copy of Its DNA Before Mitosis Occurs?

    Q: Why Does a Cell Make a Copy of Its DNA Before Mitosis Occurs?

    A: A cell makes a copy of its DNA before mitosis occurs so there is a set of DNA for the daughter cell after mitosis has occurred. Because each cell needs its own set of DNA, there must be two sets of DNA present in a cell before it divides into two.
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  • What Is the Function of the Cell Body?

    Q: What Is the Function of the Cell Body?

    A: The main function of the cell body of a neuron is to integrate synaptic information and transmit this information to other cells via the axon. The cell body also completes a variety of biochemical processes to keep the neuron functioning properly.
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  • Why Is Iodine Stain Used on Onion Cells?

    Q: Why Is Iodine Stain Used on Onion Cells?

    A: Iodine is often used to stain onion cells before microscopic examination to enhance the visibility of the cells. Many cells, including those of onions and other vegetables, are often transparent. When unstained cells are viewed under a microscope, the light passes directly through the cells’ various structures revealing little to no detail. By contrast, when iodine or other dyes are used, the cell absorbs the dye into its various organelles and structures, which blocks the light and allows the observer’s eye to detect the details of the cell.
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  • What Is the Function of the Dermis Layer of Cells?

    Q: What Is the Function of the Dermis Layer of Cells?

    A: The dermis layer of skin is beneath the epidermis, and its main function is temperature regulation and blood supply. The dermis also gives skin its thickness, and it makes up roughly 90 percent of the thickness of skin.
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  • What Organelle Is the Site of Protein Synthesis?

    Q: What Organelle Is the Site of Protein Synthesis?

    A: There are four organelles found in eukaryotic cells that aid in the synthesis of proteins. These organelles include the nucleus, the ribosomes, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. All of these organelles help produce and process proteins, but only the ribosomes actually piece together amino acids into proteins.
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  • Why Is RNA Important to the Cell?

    Q: Why Is RNA Important to the Cell?

    A: RNA is important to cells because it relays information encoded in DNA to tiny organs within the cell, called ribosomes, which produce protein according to the RNA's instructions. RNA is thus vital to the basic functioning of the cell.
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  • Why Is Cellular Respiration Important?

    Q: Why Is Cellular Respiration Important?

    A: Faculty resources from Thomas Nelson Community College explain that cellular respiration is the process by which cells produce adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. ATP is the molecule that carries energy for the cells of an organism, and it functions as a “currency” for the cells in an organism. Cells cannot store ATP; instead, they must produce it continuously or the organism will die.
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  • What Is a Summary of Mitosis?

    Q: What Is a Summary of Mitosis?

    A: During mitosis, a cell enlarges, splits and multiplies DNA, and then separates into two daughter cells. During this reproductive cycle, the cell goes through five different phases.
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  • What Is the Definition of a Plant Cell?

    Q: What Is the Definition of a Plant Cell?

    A: A plant cell is the structural and functional unit of a plant. Plant cells generally form several different colonies in order to become a higher functioning organism.
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