Cells

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At the cellular level, osmosis is the process where particles diffuse over a semi-permeable membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration. A less-concentrated solution is called hypotonic, while a more highly concentrated solution is called hypertonic. Isotonic refers to a solution that is balanced.

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  • What Is the Purpose of Cell Division?

    Q: What Is the Purpose of Cell Division?

    A: Cell division has three purposes for an organism: reproduction, growth and maintenance. For single-celled organisms, this is their direct and only method of reproduction, and it serves no other purpose. For multicellular organisms, cell division is a step in reproduction and is necessary for growth and maintenance.
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  • What Is a Good Analogy for the Functioning of the Nucleolus?

    Q: What Is a Good Analogy for the Functioning of the Nucleolus?

    A: The best analogy for the nucleolus in eukaryotic cells is a factory that makes tools that are used to build other resources. The primary function of the nucleolus is to combine and construct ribosomes. The primary function of ribosomes is to build proteins necessary for the cell.
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  • What Is the Function of the Cell Body?

    Q: What Is the Function of the Cell Body?

    A: The main function of the cell body of a neuron is to integrate synaptic information and transmit this information to other cells via the axon. The cell body also completes a variety of biochemical processes to keep the neuron functioning properly.
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  • Why Is Iodine Stain Used on Onion Cells?

    Q: Why Is Iodine Stain Used on Onion Cells?

    A: Iodine is often used to stain onion cells before microscopic examination to enhance the visibility of the cells. Many cells, including those of onions and other vegetables, are often transparent. When unstained cells are viewed under a microscope, the light passes directly through the cells’ various structures revealing little to no detail. By contrast, when iodine or other dyes are used, the cell absorbs the dye into its various organelles and structures, which blocks the light and allows the observer’s eye to detect the details of the cell.
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  • Why Is Cellular Respiration Important?

    Q: Why Is Cellular Respiration Important?

    A: Faculty resources from Thomas Nelson Community College explain that cellular respiration is the process by which cells produce adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. ATP is the molecule that carries energy for the cells of an organism, and it functions as a “currency” for the cells in an organism. Cells cannot store ATP; instead, they must produce it continuously or the organism will die.
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  • What Is the Function of the Mitochondrion?

    Q: What Is the Function of the Mitochondrion?

    A: A mitochondrion produces energy for a cell. Mitochondria (the plural of mitochondrion) are small organelles found in most nucleated cells, including those of plants, animals and fungi.
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  • What Are the Longest Cells in the Human Body?

    Q: What Are the Longest Cells in the Human Body?

    A: The longest cells in the human body are neurons. Neurons are cells within the nervous system and carry messages throughout the body.
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  • Where Does Meiosis Take Place?

    Q: Where Does Meiosis Take Place?

    A: For humans, meiosis occurs in the reproductive organs of both males and females. Both genders make use of meiosis to produce their respective gametes.
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  • What Are the Differences Between Plant Cells and Animal Cells?

    Q: What Are the Differences Between Plant Cells and Animal Cells?

    A: The main difference between plant cells and animals cells is that plant cells possess a cell wall and animal cells do not. Animal cells have an irregular shape, and plant cells have a fixed, rectangular shape.
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  • What Occurs in the Nucleus?

    Q: What Occurs in the Nucleus?

    A: Transcription of DNA occurs in the nucleus, according to Cara Lea Council-Garcia, a professor at the University of New Mexico. The DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA in the nucleus of a cell.
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  • What Are the Similarities Between Plant and Animal Cells?

    Q: What Are the Similarities Between Plant and Animal Cells?

    A: Plant and animals cells have many of the same organelles, such as the nucleus, mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, the contents of these cells are held together by cell membranes.
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  • How Do Cells Use Energy?

    Q: How Do Cells Use Energy?

    A: Cells use energy in order to grow, regulate metabolism and reproduce. This energy is obtained from a source such as food molecules or light from the sun, and through processes like glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, an energy-rich molecule is then created. The cell can then use the energy in the protein molecule to help it function.
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  • Why Do Cells Need Oxygen?

    Q: Why Do Cells Need Oxygen?

    A: Cells need oxygen for the efficient use of glucose in cellular respiration, the main method most organisms use to gain energy. The oxygen bonds to portions of the glucose molecule, releasing water, carbon dioxide and a large amount of energy. The cells then use that energy to generate adenosine triphosphate, commonly abbreviated as ATP, the main energy currency used by the cell.
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  • How Do Plant, Animal and Bacterial Cells Compare in Size?

    Q: How Do Plant, Animal and Bacterial Cells Compare in Size?

    A: Plant cells and animal cells are much larger than bacterial cells. On average, animals cells range from 10 to 30 micrometers in length, while plant cells average between 10 and 100 micrometers in length. By comparison, bacterial cells are less than 2 micrometers long.
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  • What Are the Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells?

    Q: What Are the Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells?

    A: There are many differences between plant and animal cells, but one of the most obvious differences is that plant cells have a cell wall. Animal cells do not have a cell wall. Animal cells have an irregular shape, and plant cells have a fixed, rectangular shape.
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  • What Is the Definition of a Plant Cell?

    Q: What Is the Definition of a Plant Cell?

    A: A plant cell is the structural and functional unit of a plant. Plant cells generally form several different colonies in order to become a higher functioning organism.
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  • What Are the Three Parts of the Cell Theory?

    Q: What Are the Three Parts of the Cell Theory?

    A: The three fundamental propositions of classical cell theory are that the cell is the most basic unit of life, all life is made up of cells and cells are formed only by other cells. Each tenet of this theory is important to understanding the way living things function on every level.
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  • Science and Biology: The Function of a Cell Membrane

    Q: Science and Biology: The Function of a Cell Membrane

    A: The function of a cell membrane, also referred to as the plasma membrane, is to protect the structures within the cell, give shape to the cell and support its structure.
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  • How Does Skin Regenerate?

    Q: How Does Skin Regenerate?

    A: Skin regenerates by filling the gap between the sides of the cut with newly generated skin cells, starting with the dermis (bottom-most layer of the skin) and working its way up. Very shallow cuts are followed by easy regeneration, as only the stratum basale layer (the deepest layer of skin) of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin) is needed to generate enough cells to repair the damage.
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  • What Is the Function of Collar Cells in Sponges?

    Q: What Is the Function of Collar Cells in Sponges?

    A: Collar cells beat their flagella back and forth to force water through the sponge. Collar cells also pick up tiny bits of food brought in with water.
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  • What Is the Difference Between Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells?

    Q: What Is the Difference Between Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells?

    A: Plant cells differ from animal cells in three major ways: their components, their function and the structures they build. Plant cells are typically more rigid than animal cells; they do not move, and they are able to synthesize all the chemical compounds needed by the organism. Animal cells must receive at least some of their nutrients from an outside source.
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