Cells

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The consensus among biochemists is that virtually every cell in the human body can break down sugar, usually in the form of glucose, to use as energy. According to the authors of the 5th edition of "Biochemistry," the brain and the kidneys prefer to run on glucose. In fact, the brain favors glucose to such an extent that it only metabolizes other fuel sources after several days of starvation.

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  • What is the function of the mitochondrion?

    Q: What is the function of the mitochondrion?

    A: A mitochondrion produces energy for a cell. Mitochondria (the plural of mitochondrion) are small organelles found in most nucleated cells, including those of plants, animals and fungi.
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  • Where does translation occur?

    Q: Where does translation occur?

    A: Translation occurs in the cell, specifically in the cytoplasm. Translation is one of many steps in the creation of protein which is needed to fuel the body.
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  • What are some of the main functions of skin cells?

    Q: What are some of the main functions of skin cells?

    A: Some of the main functions of skin cells are to provide protection, perceive and transmit sensation, control evaporation and regulate temperature. Skin cells, which are epithelial cells, are also self-repairing and reproduce quickly. Epithelial cells are the most commonly found of the four tissue types.
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  • What is the function of the cheek cell?

    Q: What is the function of the cheek cell?

    A: A cheek cell, an epithelial cell found in the tissue on the inside lining of the mouth, continually secretes mucus to maintains a moist environment in the mouth. Together with salivary glands that secrete saliva, the cheek cells supply enough moisture in the mouth for enzymes to thrive. This moisture softens food, assists in swallowing and starts digestion.
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  • What is a summary of mitosis?

    Q: What is a summary of mitosis?

    A: During mitosis, a cell enlarges, splits and multiplies DNA, and then separates into two daughter cells. During this reproductive cycle, the cell goes through five different phases.
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  • Why are cells so small?

    Q: Why are cells so small?

    A: Brooklyn College explains that cells are small because they must have a large surface area relative to the amount of volume they contain to function properly. As a sphere grows larger, its volume increases much more rapidly than its surface area does. This presents logistical problems for the cell, as it tries to transport resources and products through a large volume without the resources available via a large surface.
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  • Why does a sperm cell have a tail?

    Q: Why does a sperm cell have a tail?

    A: Sperm cells have tails primarily for the purpose of swimming. They must move from the vagina up through the female reproductive system.
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  • What are the three main reasons why cell division is important?

    Q: What are the three main reasons why cell division is important?

    A: The three main reasons why cell division is important in organisms are reproduction, repair and growth, according to "McDougal Littell Science Cells and Heredity." Cell division is necessary in order for life to continue.
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  • How do plant, animal and bacterial cells compare in size?

    Q: How do plant, animal and bacterial cells compare in size?

    A: Plant cells and animal cells are much larger than bacterial cells. On average, animals cells range from 10 to 30 micrometers in length, while plant cells average between 10 and 100 micrometers in length. By comparison, bacterial cells are less than 2 micrometers long.
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  • What is diffusion in science?

    Q: What is diffusion in science?

    A: Diffusion is the action of molecules moving from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. It is caused by kinetic energy.
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  • What are the similarities between plant and animal cells?

    Q: What are the similarities between plant and animal cells?

    A: Plant and animal cells have many of the same organelles, they both divide to reproduce, and they share similar basic structure. Scientists cite these similarities as evidence that all life evolved from a common ancestor.
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  • What is the function of the dermis layer of cells?

    Q: What is the function of the dermis layer of cells?

    A: The dermis layer of skin is beneath the epidermis, and its main function is temperature regulation and blood supply. The dermis also gives skin its thickness, and it makes up roughly 90 percent of the thickness of skin.
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  • What does DNA stand for?

    Q: What does DNA stand for?

    A: DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the molecule that carries genetic information in humans and all other living organisms. Deoxyribonucleic acid is composed of four chemical bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. The sequence of these bases within DNA encodes genetic information.
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  • How does the structure of a muscle cell type relate to its function?

    Q: How does the structure of a muscle cell type relate to its function?

    A: According to About.com Biology section, there are three different types of muscle cells, and each has a different structure related to its function. Cardiac muscles are designed to contract together; skeletal-muscle cells have ordered striations so that they can contract farther than other muscle cells to move the body; and, visceral-muscle cells are designed to contract slower and remain contracted for long periods of time.
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  • What makes plant and animal cells different?

    Q: What makes plant and animal cells different?

    A: There are several key differences between plant and animal cells, such as cell wall structure, presence or absence of plastids, lysosomes and centrioles and shape of vacuoles. These characteristics are the primary and most distinct differences between plant and animal cells. However, they only exist in organisms classified as eukaryotic, and occur primarily in central organelles.
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  • What are the three parts of the cell theory?

    Q: What are the three parts of the cell theory?

    A: The three fundamental propositions of classical cell theory are that the cell is the most basic unit of life, all life is made up of cells and cells are formed only by other cells. Each tenet of this theory is important to understanding the way living things function on every level.
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  • If a human skill cell has 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each new skin cell have after mitosis?

    Q: If a human skill cell has 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each new skin cell have after mitosis?

    A: Human skin cells reproduce continuously, and each daughter cell carries a complete set of 46 chromosomes. Nucleated somatic cells, which make up the body and carry a complement of DNA, all have the same number of chromosomes as their parent cells.
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  • What type of cells undergo meiosis?

    Q: What type of cells undergo meiosis?

    A: Germ cells, which are diploid, undergo meiosis to produce haploid gametes. A gamete is a cell that fuses with another to form a zygote, which develops into an embryo. Female gametes are called eggs, while male gametes are known as sperm.
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  • Why is the nucleus called the control center of the cell?

    Q: Why is the nucleus called the control center of the cell?

    A: The nucleus can be thought of as the control center of a eukaryotic cell because it contains most of the genetic material that carries the instructions for the cell's operations. Inside the nucleus, DNA directs the sequence of chemical steps needed for the synthesis of proteins and, by way of the proteins' action, it controls the metabolism of the rest of the cell.
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  • Why do cells need oxygen?

    Q: Why do cells need oxygen?

    A: Cells need oxygen for the efficient use of glucose in cellular respiration, the main method most organisms use to gain energy. The oxygen bonds to portions of the glucose molecule, releasing water, carbon dioxide and a large amount of energy. The cells then use that energy to generate adenosine triphosphate, commonly abbreviated as ATP, the main energy currency used by the cell.
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  • Which organelle performs cellular respiration?

    Q: Which organelle performs cellular respiration?

    A: According to About.com, cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria. While mitochondria primarily exist to serve as “power plants” for the cell, converting natural resources into usable energy, they also play a role in cellular division, cell growth and cell death.
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