Cells

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The process of cell division in plants and animals is very similar as regards the replication and separation of the nucleus and other organelles, but the actual process of dividing the cytoplasm differs. In animal cells, the cytoplasm of the two daughter cells is essentially pinched apart by a ring of actin and myosin proteins pulling the cell membrane closed. Plant cells separate their cytoplasm by building a wall instead.

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  • Why is the nucleus called the control center of the cell?

    Q: Why is the nucleus called the control center of the cell?

    A: The nucleus can be thought of as the control center of a eukaryotic cell because it contains most of the genetic material that carries the instructions for the cell's operations. Inside the nucleus, DNA directs the sequence of chemical steps needed for the synthesis of proteins and, by way of the proteins' action, it controls the metabolism of the rest of the cell.
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  • How do plant, animal and bacterial cells compare in size?

    Q: How do plant, animal and bacterial cells compare in size?

    A: Plant cells and animal cells are much larger than bacterial cells. On average, animals cells range from 10 to 30 micrometers in length, while plant cells average between 10 and 100 micrometers in length. By comparison, bacterial cells are less than 2 micrometers long.
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  • If a human skill cell has 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each new skin cell have after mitosis?

    Q: If a human skill cell has 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each new skin cell have after mitosis?

    A: Human skin cells reproduce continuously, and each daughter cell carries a complete set of 46 chromosomes. Nucleated somatic cells, which make up the body and carry a complement of DNA, all have the same number of chromosomes as their parent cells.
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  • What is biofilm?

    Q: What is biofilm?

    A: Biofilm is a group of microorganisms that are joined together on a surface. They adhere to each other with molecular strands called extracellular polymeric substances, or EPS.
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  • Why is RNA important to the cell?

    Q: Why is RNA important to the cell?

    A: RNA is important to cells because it relays information encoded in DNA to tiny organs within the cell, called ribosomes, which produce protein according to the RNA's instructions. RNA is thus vital to the basic functioning of the cell.
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  • What are the longest cells in the human body?

    Q: What are the longest cells in the human body?

    A: The longest cells in the human body are neurons. Neurons are cells within the nervous system and carry messages throughout the body.
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  • How does skin regenerate?

    Q: How does skin regenerate?

    A: Skin regenerates by filling the gap between the sides of the cut with newly generated skin cells, starting with the dermis (bottom-most layer of the skin) and working its way up. Very shallow cuts are followed by easy regeneration, as only the stratum basale layer (the deepest layer of skin) of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin) is needed to generate enough cells to repair the damage.
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  • What is the function of collar cells in sponges?

    Q: What is the function of collar cells in sponges?

    A: Collar cells beat their flagella back and forth to force water through the sponge. Collar cells also pick up tiny bits of food brought in with water.
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  • What is the largest cell in the world?

    Q: What is the largest cell in the world?

    A: The largest cell in the world is an ostrich’s egg. Sometimes weighing over 3 pounds, the ostrich’s egg is composed of a single cell, as all other animal eggs are.
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  • What is the difference between plant cells vs. animal cells?

    Q: What is the difference between plant cells vs. animal cells?

    A: Plant cells differ from animal cells in three major ways: their components, their function and the structures they build. Plant cells are typically more rigid than animal cells; they do not move, and they are able to synthesize all the chemical compounds needed by the organism. Animal cells must receive at least some of their nutrients from an outside source.
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  • Why does a cell make a copy of its DNA before mitosis occurs?

    Q: Why does a cell make a copy of its DNA before mitosis occurs?

    A: A cell makes a copy of its DNA before mitosis occurs so there is a set of DNA for the daughter cell after mitosis has occurred. Because each cell needs its own set of DNA, there must be two sets of DNA present in a cell before it divides into two.
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  • Why are cells called the basic unit of life?

    Q: Why are cells called the basic unit of life?

    A: Cell are considered the basic unit of life because all life forms are composed of them. Some forms of life are made of one cell; others contain trillions.
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  • What are the three main reasons why cell division is important?

    Q: What are the three main reasons why cell division is important?

    A: The three main reasons why cell division is important in organisms are reproduction, repair and growth, according to "McDougal Littell Science Cells and Heredity." Cell division is necessary in order for life to continue.
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  • Why are cells so small?

    Q: Why are cells so small?

    A: Brooklyn College explains that cells are small because they must have a large surface area relative to the amount of volume they contain to function properly. As a sphere grows larger, its volume increases much more rapidly than its surface area does. This presents logistical problems for the cell, as it tries to transport resources and products through a large volume without the resources available via a large surface.
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  • What is a cell membrane?

    Q: What is a cell membrane?

    A: A cell membrane is a thin layer that acts as a barrier that separates an individual cell or a cellular compartment from other surrounding structures. This dynamic layer plays an essential part in the transport of ions and nutrients.
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  • What are analogies for chloroplasts?

    Q: What are analogies for chloroplasts?

    A: According to Online Digital Education Connection, analogies for chloroplasts are power plants that imitate the function of chloroplasts in a plant cell to utilize solar energy or light in the processing of food for plant cells. Score Science lists solar energy plants as city analogies for chloroplasts.
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  • Why is iodine stain used on onion cells?

    Q: Why is iodine stain used on onion cells?

    A: Iodine is often used to stain onion cells before microscopic examination to enhance the visibility of the cells. Many cells, including those of onions and other vegetables, are often transparent. When unstained cells are viewed under a microscope, the light passes directly through the cells’ various structures revealing little to no detail. By contrast, when iodine or other dyes are used, the cell absorbs the dye into its various organelles and structures, which blocks the light and allows the observer’s eye to detect the details of the cell.
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  • How do cells use energy?

    Q: How do cells use energy?

    A: Cells use energy in order to grow, regulate metabolism and reproduce. This energy is obtained from a source such as food molecules or light from the sun, and through processes like glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, an energy-rich molecule is then created. The cell can then use the energy in the protein molecule to help it function.
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  • Where does translation occur?

    Q: Where does translation occur?

    A: Translation occurs in the cell, specifically in the cytoplasm. Translation is one of many steps in the creation of protein which is needed to fuel the body.
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  • What is a physiological adaptation?

    Q: What is a physiological adaptation?

    A: A physiological adaptation is when an individual has a systemic response to an external stimulus, with the intent to remain in its homeostasis. Physiological adaptations differ from evolutionary adaptations because they don't involve transgenerational adjustment; instead, these are instead narrow in scope, having to do with an individual's change. A simple example of a physiological adaptation is when someone gets a tan from being out in the sun for a long time.
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  • What is the function of the mitochondrion?

    Q: What is the function of the mitochondrion?

    A: A mitochondrion produces energy for a cell. Mitochondria (the plural of mitochondrion) are small organelles found in most nucleated cells, including those of plants, animals and fungi.
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