Cells

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The process of cell division in plants and animals is very similar as regards the replication and separation of the nucleus and other organelles, but the actual process of dividing the cytoplasm differs. In animal cells, the cytoplasm of the two daughter cells is essentially pinched apart by a ring of actin and myosin proteins pulling the cell membrane closed. Plant cells separate their cytoplasm by building a wall instead.

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  • What is diffusion in science?

    Q: What is diffusion in science?

    A: Diffusion is the action of molecules moving from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. It is caused by kinetic energy.
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  • What is the difference between plant cells vs. animal cells?

    Q: What is the difference between plant cells vs. animal cells?

    A: Plant cells differ from animal cells in three major ways: their components, their function and the structures they build. Plant cells are typically more rigid than animal cells; they do not move, and they are able to synthesize all the chemical compounds needed by the organism. Animal cells must receive at least some of their nutrients from an outside source.
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  • Why do cells divide?

    Q: Why do cells divide?

    A: Cells divide as a way of reproducing or growing or to create sex cells. Cells can only reach a certain size due to a lack of balanced growth between their parts, so they have to divide once they reach a certain point. Sex cells, such as eggs and sperm, are only created through specialized cell division.
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  • What is the importance of meiosis?

    Q: What is the importance of meiosis?

    A: The importance of meiosis is that it enables genetic diversity. Unlike the asexual form of cellular division, mitosis, meiosis allows chromosome pairs with the same genes, called homologous chromosomes, to exchange pieces in a process called recombination. This enables chromosome pieces from the female parent to combine with those of the male parent.
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  • Why is cellular respiration important?

    Q: Why is cellular respiration important?

    A: Faculty resources from Thomas Nelson Community College explain that cellular respiration is the process by which cells produce adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. ATP is the molecule that carries energy for the cells of an organism, and it functions as a “currency” for the cells in an organism. Cells cannot store ATP; instead, they must produce it continuously or the organism will die.
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  • What organelle produces ATP?

    Q: What organelle produces ATP?

    A: The mitochondria inside a cell produces ATP, or adenosine triphosphate. Cellular respiration is responsible for ATP production, a process in which ATP production occurs after biochemical energy from nutrients is converted.
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  • What is biofilm?

    Q: What is biofilm?

    A: Biofilm is a group of microorganisms that are joined together on a surface. They adhere to each other with molecular strands called extracellular polymeric substances, or EPS.
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  • What occurs in the nucleus?

    Q: What occurs in the nucleus?

    A: Transcription of DNA occurs in the nucleus, according to Cara Lea Council-Garcia, a professor at the University of New Mexico. The DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA in the nucleus of a cell.
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  • What are some of the main functions of skin cells?

    Q: What are some of the main functions of skin cells?

    A: Some of the main functions of skin cells are to provide protection, perceive and transmit sensation, control evaporation and regulate temperature. Skin cells, which are epithelial cells, are also self-repairing and reproduce quickly. Epithelial cells are the most commonly found of the four tissue types.
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  • What is the definition of a plant cell?

    Q: What is the definition of a plant cell?

    A: A plant cell is the structural and functional unit of a plant. Plant cells generally form several different colonies in order to become a higher functioning organism.
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  • What is a summary of mitosis?

    Q: What is a summary of mitosis?

    A: During mitosis, a cell enlarges, splits and multiplies DNA, and then separates into two daughter cells. During this reproductive cycle, the cell goes through five different phases.
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  • What does DNA stand for?

    Q: What does DNA stand for?

    A: DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the molecule that carries genetic information in humans and all other living organisms. Deoxyribonucleic acid is composed of four chemical bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. The sequence of these bases within DNA encodes genetic information.
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  • What are the differences between plant cells and animal cells?

    Q: What are the differences between plant cells and animal cells?

    A: The main difference between plant cells and animals cells is that plant cells possess a cell wall and animal cells do not. Animal cells have an irregular shape, and plant cells have a fixed, rectangular shape.
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  • What is the purpose of cell division?

    Q: What is the purpose of cell division?

    A: Cell division has three purposes for an organism: reproduction, growth and maintenance. For single-celled organisms, this is their direct and only method of reproduction, and it serves no other purpose. For multicellular organisms, cell division is a step in reproduction and is necessary for growth and maintenance.
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  • What type of cells undergo meiosis?

    Q: What type of cells undergo meiosis?

    A: Germ cells, which are diploid, undergo meiosis to produce haploid gametes. A gamete is a cell that fuses with another to form a zygote, which develops into an embryo. Female gametes are called eggs, while male gametes are known as sperm.
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  • What is the function of the cheek cell?

    Q: What is the function of the cheek cell?

    A: A cheek cell, an epithelial cell found in the tissue on the inside lining of the mouth, continually secretes mucus to maintains a moist environment in the mouth. Together with salivary glands that secrete saliva, the cheek cells supply enough moisture in the mouth for enzymes to thrive. This moisture softens food, assists in swallowing and starts digestion.
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  • What is the function of cytoplasm?

    Q: What is the function of cytoplasm?

    A: Cytoplasm has many functions in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including aiding in the movement of cellular materials and transporting the genetic material and products of cellular respiration. It also acts as a liquid medium to suspend organelles and helps cells expand during reproduction.
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  • Why do cells need oxygen?

    Q: Why do cells need oxygen?

    A: Cells need oxygen for the efficient use of glucose in cellular respiration, the main method most organisms use to gain energy. The oxygen bonds to portions of the glucose molecule, releasing water, carbon dioxide and a large amount of energy. The cells then use that energy to generate adenosine triphosphate, commonly abbreviated as ATP, the main energy currency used by the cell.
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  • What is the function of the mitochondrion?

    Q: What is the function of the mitochondrion?

    A: A mitochondrion produces energy for a cell. Mitochondria (the plural of mitochondrion) are small organelles found in most nucleated cells, including those of plants, animals and fungi.
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  • Why does a sperm cell have a tail?

    Q: Why does a sperm cell have a tail?

    A: Sperm cells have tails primarily for the purpose of swimming. They must move from the vagina up through the female reproductive system.
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  • What makes plant and animal cells different?

    Q: What makes plant and animal cells different?

    A: There are several key differences between plant and animal cells, such as cell wall structure, presence or absence of plastids, lysosomes and centrioles and shape of vacuoles. These characteristics are the primary and most distinct differences between plant and animal cells. However, they only exist in organisms classified as eukaryotic, and occur primarily in central organelles.
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