Botany

A:

Ferns reproduce through their spores, which are produced in very small spots called sori. Each sorus consists of numerous tiny, spherical granules that contain sporangia. Once the sporangia mature, they burst and release spores into the wind, and this is how new ferns emerge.

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  • What are the four things needed for photosynthesis?

    Q: What are the four things needed for photosynthesis?

    A: Photosynthesis can only occur when a plant has access to water, carbon dioxide, sunlight and chlorophyll. Plant cells naturally produce chlorophyll, and they draw carbon dioxide directly from the air. Water and sunlight must be acquired from external sources.
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  • What happens during the process of germination?

    Q: What happens during the process of germination?

    A: Germination takes place in three steps or stages and takes the young seed from a dormant state to the very beginning stage of growing as a seedling. Germination takes place in plants, flowers and trees: this process is to members of the plant family what metamorphosis is to insects such as moths and butterflies. The process requires several critical ingredients to begin, including water, sunlight and nutrients.
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  • What eats moss?

    Q: What eats moss?

    A: Low-altitude pikas survive by eating moss, but very few other animals can do so because moss is a very poor-quality food, says National Geographic. Fairfax County Public Schools reports that a few small mites and crustaceans eat moss, but most small animals use it as shelter material rather than food.
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  • Where is starch stored within plants?

    Q: Where is starch stored within plants?

    A: Starch is stored primarily in the tubers of plants, according to Orthomolecular.org. It also can be found in the seeds, fruits and roots in the form of grains of varying size and shape.
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  • What is the function of a flower's style?

    Q: What is the function of a flower's style?

    A: In plants, the style is the long, slender stalk that connects the stigma to the ovary. The stigma is where the pollen is deposited, and the ovary is at the bottom of the style and houses the plant's ovules, which contain the egg cells. The function of the style is to check compatibility and judge whether the pollen that lands on the flower can fertilize the plant.
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  • Where do Venus flytraps live?

    Q: Where do Venus flytraps live?

    A: Venus flytraps live in acid-rich soils mixed with drainage materials and are mostly restricted to specific regions of North Carolina and South Carolina. They can be cultivated at home in a substrate consisting of 65 percent sphagnum moss and 35 percent sand.
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  • What are the accessory pigments and what are their functions?

    Q: What are the accessory pigments and what are their functions?

    A: Accessory pigments are pigments in plant leaves other than chlorophyll a that assist in the process of photosynthesis. Accessory pigments function by extending the range of light wavelengths that a plant absorbs. Accessory pigments give plants unique colors.
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  • What are castor beans?

    Q: What are castor beans?

    A: Castor beans are seeds from the castor oil plant, also known as Ricinus communis. They are the source of castor oil and the poison ricin.
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  • What is the function of leaves?

    Q: What is the function of leaves?

    A: The function of leaves is to help the plant produce food by converting the energy in sunlight into chemical energy that the plant can eat. The structures within the leaf convert the energy and make it possible for the plant to get food.
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  • What is the difference between pollination and fertilization?

    Q: What is the difference between pollination and fertilization?

    A: Pollination is the process whereby pollen grains move from the anther to the stigma on a flower’s style, while fertilization is the fusion of the male gametes and female egg cells to form a new plant seed. Pollination precedes fertilization and depends on such media as wind, water and insects. Pollination takes place externally, while fertilization occurs in the inside of the flower and does not depend on external vectors.
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  • What is parallel venation?

    Q: What is parallel venation?

    A: Parallel venation refers to a pattern in the veins of a leaf where the secondary veins run parallel to each other off of a central, perpendicular primary vein. Parallel venation is also sometimes used to describe a similar pattern on an insect's wing.
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  • What is the function of a flower?

    Q: What is the function of a flower?

    A: The purpose of a flower is to attract pollinators to a plant to aid in fertilization so that the plant creates seeds. Bright colors, strong scents and sweet nectar all work together to attract birds, bees and other insects to move pollen from one flower to another. After pollination occurs, the flower develops seeds.
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  • What are the raw materials for photosynthesis?

    Q: What are the raw materials for photosynthesis?

    A: The raw materials for photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water. These are absorbed through the leaves of the plant or tree and allow the plant to produce oxygen and sugar.
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  • Why are chloroplasts green?

    Q: Why are chloroplasts green?

    A: Chloroplasts, the parts of plant cells responsible for photosynthesis, are green because they contain the pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs the red and blue wavelengths of light and reflects back the green wavelengths. Chlorophyll absorbs particular colors of light to provide the right amount of energy for photosynthesis to take place. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use the energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide from the air into carbohydrates for food.
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  • Where do oranges come from?

    Q: Where do oranges come from?

    A: Oranges are believed to have originated in southeastern Asian, formerly known as Indochina, southern China and northeastern India. The fruit was brought to the Mediterranean area by either traders or Portuguese explorers.
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  • What does the root of a plant do?

    Q: What does the root of a plant do?

    A: The main function of a plant root is to absorb water and minerals from the soil for the plant to use. Roots also anchor plants into the ground, offering them support and keeping them from washing or blowing away. In some plants, such as carrots, roots store carbohydrates that the plant has made through photosynthesis for later use.
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  • What are the three parts of a seed?

    Q: What are the three parts of a seed?

    A: The three parts of a seed are the embryo, the endosperm and the seed coat. The embryo is a miniature form of the plant that is fed by the nutrition contained in the endosperm. The embryo is protected from the external environment by the seed coat.
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  • How is a leaf adapted to carry out photosynthesis?

    Q: How is a leaf adapted to carry out photosynthesis?

    A: Leaves are adapted for carrying out photosynthesis by virtue of their flat shape and periodic replacement, and because they contain most of the plant’s chlorophyll. Leaves are the primary location in which photosynthesis occurs, so plants often arrange their leaves to receive the most solar radiation.
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  • What is the function of the lower epidermis?

    Q: What is the function of the lower epidermis?

    A: The lower epidermis contains stomata cells that help prevent water loss and regulate the exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, enabling plants to survive. Other cells in the lower epidermis include a waxy cuticle to protect underlying layers, according to Education Portal. Transparency in epidermal cells allows sunlight to pass through to chloroplasts, which are involved in photosynthesis.
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  • What Is the formula for photosynthesis?

    Q: What Is the formula for photosynthesis?

    A: The balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis is 6 CO2 + 6 H2O ? C6H12O6 + 6 O2. In English terms, this equation translates to six carbon dioxide plus six water results in glucose plus six oxygen.
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  • Why do we need plants?

    Q: Why do we need plants?

    A: Plants are necessary because they are a primary food source and provide the oxygen that is vital to animals' and humans' existence. A majority of the calories that people consume comes from plants, and most meat comes from animals that eat plants. Plants are at the bottom of the food chain, and animals could not survive without them. Plants also release the oxygen that humans and animals breathe.
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