Biology

A:

The NIH Genetics Home Reference Handbook explains that mutations are passed to offspring if these mutations are present in germ line (sperm or egg) cells. Germ line mutations can occur early in the parent's development so that they affect all of the cells in the parent's body, including eventual gametes. These mutations can also occur in gametes alone and therefore only affect offspring.

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  • What are the main characteristics of algae?

    Q: What are the main characteristics of algae?

    A: Algae are any eukaryotes, other than plants, that conduct photosynthesis. They range from single-celled organisms to multicellular seaweeds over 180 feet in length with specialized organs. They are found in most environments, especially very wet ones, perhaps most notably the oceans, where they are the dominant producers.
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  • How do you make yourself unconscious?

    Q: How do you make yourself unconscious?

    A: Drastically reducing the amount of oxygen traveling to the brain could temporarily cause a person to lose consciousness. Although incredibly dangerous, it is possible to self-induce unconsciousness either by reducing the oxygen intake through the lungs or by causing the blood pressure to drop.
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  • What are the 25 branches of biology?

    Q: What are the 25 branches of biology?

    A: Various branches used in biology include those pertaining to animals, evolution, the environment and chemistry. Branches covering microorganisms and microscopic structure are grouped together, as are subsections related to the medical field.
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  • What is the difference between a tissue system and an organ system?

    Q: What is the difference between a tissue system and an organ system?

    A: Tissue and organ systems are different hierarchical levels of biological organization. Dr. Ingrid Lobo explains for Nature Education that biological organisms are systems of complexity. The basic functional unit of life is a single cell, and cells similar in function assemble to form tissue. An organ is a collection of different tissues joined as a functional unit; a group of organs working together to perform a specific task is an organ system.
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  • What is an analogy for the cell wall?

    Q: What is an analogy for the cell wall?

    A: A good analogy for the cell wall is a sturdy fence or wall surrounding a castle, protecting the structure from harm and only allowing entrance by outsiders through specified gates and openings. In this scenario, the wall also keeps inhabitants safe inside, preventing them from venturing out into potential danger.
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  • Why is respiration important for living things?

    Q: Why is respiration important for living things?

    A: Respiration is one of the requirements for living things because it is the process where organisms exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. This is related yet different from cellular respiration, which is the process where individual cells convert oxygen into carbon dioxide while converting food to energy.
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  • What are the three types of symbiotic relationships?

    Q: What are the three types of symbiotic relationships?

    A: Three types of symbiotic relationships are mutualism, commensalism and parasitism. In symbiosis, at least one member of the pair benefits from the relationship, while the host may also benefit, may be unaffected or may be harmed.
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  • What is the difference between microbicidal and microbiostatic?

    Q: What is the difference between microbicidal and microbiostatic?

    A: A microbicidal agent kills microorganisms such as bacteria, while a microbiostatic agent only prohibits the growth of such microorganisms. In the presence of microbiostatics, the microorganisms eventually die due to lack of reproduction. Microbicidals are irreversible and lethal, while microbiostatics are reversible.
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  • What is a systemic viral infection?

    Q: What is a systemic viral infection?

    A: A systemic viral infection occurs in many different systems or organs of the body, as opposed to a localized viral infection, which affects only one part or organ of the body. Because viruses are able to reproduce at a high rate, viral infections can spread quickly throughout the body.
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  • What is the difference between a protozoa and a bacteria?

    Q: What is the difference between a protozoa and a bacteria?

    A: Bacteria and protozoa are very distantly related, with bacteria classified as prokaryotes and protists as eukaryotes. This means that protozoa are more closely related to humans than either is to bacteria. The two organisms are structurally distinct. Bacterial cells lack a nucleus, and protozoa contain organelles, such as mitochondria.
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  • Where do algae live?

    Q: Where do algae live?

    A: Algae live in bodies of water and damp places and are commonly found in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Terrestrial algae mostly live in moist, tropical areas. They prefer wet places, because they do not have vascular tissues and the other necessary adaptations to survive on land.
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  • How are mitosis and meiosis alike?

    Q: How are mitosis and meiosis alike?

    A: Mitosis and meiosis are similar in that they are both forms of cellular reproduction, and they both, consequently, produce daughter cells. Both processes also use the same four steps: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
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  • What are examples of non-infectious diseases?

    Q: What are examples of non-infectious diseases?

    A: Asthma, diabetes, stroke, cancer, chronic obstructed pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis are examples of non-infectious diseases, which are commonly known as non-communicable diseases or NCDs. While viral infections, such as the flu, measles and HIV, typically spread from person to person, NCDs aren't contagious and can't be contracted from bacteria. In most cases, NCDs are inherited genetically or develop in response to specific environmental conditions.
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  • What is the difference between fungus and bacteria?

    Q: What is the difference between fungus and bacteria?

    A: Fungi are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms, while bacteria are single-celled prokaryotes. The cells of fungi have nuclei that contain the chromosomes and other organelles, such as mitochondria and ribosomes. Bacteria are much smaller than fungi, do not have nuclei or other organelles and cannot reproduce sexually.
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  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of an endoskeleton?

    Q: What are the advantages and disadvantages of an endoskeleton?

    A: Advantages of an endoskeleton include strong weight-bearing properties and even growth, while disadvantages include less protection and leverage for muscles. Endoskeletons are generally found in larger animals due to better weight support, as exoskeletons can limit growth due to weight.
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  • What are organisms that make their own food called?

    Q: What are organisms that make their own food called?

    A: Organisms that produce their own food are called producers. These producers are part of the biotic factors in an ecosystem.
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  • In what part of the body does mitosis occur?

    Q: In what part of the body does mitosis occur?

    A: Mitosis occurs in every single cell that makes up the entire body. It occurs in the tissues and organs to help replace cells that have been lost as a result of normal wear and tear on the body.
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  • What is the difference between "heterozygous" and "homozygous"?

    Q: What is the difference between "heterozygous" and "homozygous"?

    A: In genetics, the term "heterozygous" describes an allele with a differing gene pair; "homozygous" refers to an allele with identical genes. Alleles determine the expression of gene traits.
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  • What are examples of prokaryotic organisms?

    Q: What are examples of prokaryotic organisms?

    A: Bacteria are some of the best examples of prokaryotic organisms. These organisms do not have a membrane-bound nucleus and lack the well-distinguished cell features found in eukaryotes.
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  • What is the function of a root hair cell?

    Q: What is the function of a root hair cell?

    A: A root hair cell in a plant absorbs minerals that have been dissolved in water. They allow a plant to absorb these minerals by increasing the surface area; this is extremely beneficial to plants that are in dry areas.
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  • How does algae form?

    Q: How does algae form?

    A: Algae are a type of plant that usually grows on the surface of still water, such as a small pond, when there is an ecological imbalance. In some cases, algae is able to grow at a rapid rate, potentially spreading across the entire surface.
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