Atoms & Molecules

A:

CO is the molecular formula for carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas, and continuous exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide can be fatal to both humans and animals.

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  • What is the chemical name for water?

    Q: What is the chemical name for water?

    A: The systematic names for water, as determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), are water and oxidane, although water is the more commonly used term by chemists. The traditional name has been retained for ease of communication.
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  • What did Ernest Rutherford discover about the atom?

    Q: What did Ernest Rutherford discover about the atom?

    A: Ernest Rutherford's famed Gold Foil Experiment of 1909 demonstrated that atoms were made up of a charged nucleus orbited by electrons. He published his findings in 1911 with a description of what he called the Rutherford model of the atom. While electrons had been described prior to this experiment, Rutherford was the first person to describe the existence of a small, charged atomic nucleus.
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  • Who tried to turn lead into gold?

    Q: Who tried to turn lead into gold?

    A: While many scientists tried to turn lead into gold, one of the most famous was Sir Isaac Newton. Other famous alchemists include Robert Boyle, Roger Bacon, Maria the Jewess and Zosimos.
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  • What are the chemical properties of lithium?

    Q: What are the chemical properties of lithium?

    A: Lithium is an element that is part of the alkali metal group. It has an atomic number of 3 and an atomic mass of 6.94. It is represented by the symbol Li.
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  • What makes a penny change color?

    Q: What makes a penny change color?

    A: Pennies become dull or change color with prolonged exposure to air because they are made of copper, which reacts to the presence of oxygen by forming copper oxide. Copper oxide is blue-green and has a common name of "verdigris."
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  • What are some of the chemical properties of water?

    Q: What are some of the chemical properties of water?

    A: Water is expressed by the molecular formula H2O and has a molar mass of 18.01 grams per mole. It has a density of 1 gram per cubic centimeter. The melting point of water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit, while the boiling point is reached at 211.96 degrees Fahrenheit.
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  • What s the scientific name for salt?

    Q: What s the scientific name for salt?

    A: The scientific name for salt is sodium chloride. The molecular formula for salt is NaCl with Na being sodium and Cl being chloride. It is an ionic compound with equal proportions of both ions.
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  • What are the nine elements named after celestial bodies?

    Q: What are the nine elements named after celestial bodies?

    A: As of June 2014, the nine elements named after celestial bodies are Mercury, Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Cerium, Palladium, Tellurium, Helium and Selenium. These names cover planets, asteroids and stars. In addition, the names of elements have been derived from other areas, including cities, colors and scientists.
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  • How many different elements are in a water molecule?

    Q: How many different elements are in a water molecule?

    A: Water contains two types of elements, hydrogen and oxygen, and three atoms in total. Because hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and oxygen is also common, water is thought to be a common chemical throughout the universe.
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  • What is the chemical formula for marble?

    Q: What is the chemical formula for marble?

    A: Marble is made of calcium carbonate, CaCO3, which is also what limestone is made from. The only difference between limestone and marble is the crystalline structure. Limestone crystals are much smaller than that of marble, and limestone is much more porous.
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  • Why is helium important?

    Q: Why is helium important?

    A: Helium is important because it is widely used for its cooling properties, and it's particularly useful for manufacturing computer components. Helium is inert which prevents it from causing chemical reactions. It is also rare on Earth but common in the universe.
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  • What is the most reactive element?

    Q: What is the most reactive element?

    A: The most reactive element is fluorine. It is never found in its free form in nature. Because it has seven electrons in its outer energy level, fluorine is always on the lookout to find a single electron to give it a more stable configuration.
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  • What is the difference between atoms, ions and isotopes?

    Q: What is the difference between atoms, ions and isotopes?

    A: The difference between atoms, ions and isotopes is the number of subatomic particles. An atom is the basic building block of matter, the smallest molecule of an element that exists and that cannot be chemically divided by ordinary means. Each atom is comprised of protons, neutrons and electrons. In ions, the number of electrons differs, and in isotopes, the number of neutrons varies.
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  • How many protons and neutrons does aluminum have?

    Q: How many protons and neutrons does aluminum have?

    A: One atom of aluminum has 13 protons and 14 neutrons. Protons are the positively charged particles in an atom, while neutrons are subatomic particles that have no charge.
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  • Is nitrogen heavier than air?

    Q: Is nitrogen heavier than air?

    A: Nitrogen is the major constituent of Earth's atmosphere, so it is, in a way, exactly as heavy as air. Though nitrogen makes up the bulk of the atmosphere by volume, almost 21 percent of the air is composed of molecular oxygen. To determine nitrogen's weight relative to air, it is important to determine whether the nitrogen in the atmosphere is lighter or heavier than the oxygen.
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  • What is the electron transport chain?

    Q: What is the electron transport chain?

    A: The electron transport chain is a chemical reaction where electrons are transferred from a high-energy molecule to a low-energy molecule. These reactions can be used to convert energy from sunlight in photosynthesis or extract energy from sugars in respiration. The electron transport chain is critical to the production of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is a source of energy for living things.
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  • What elements are in chalk?

    Q: What elements are in chalk?

    A: Chalk, also known as calcium carbonate, is composed of the elements calcium, carbon and oxygen and has the chemical sign CaCO3. Calcium carbonate is found in layers all over the world and is the main component of snail shells, pearls and the skeletons of marine organisms known as coccolithophores.
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  • Which particles account for most of the mass of an atom?

    Q: Which particles account for most of the mass of an atom?

    A: Protons and neutrons account for most of an atom's mass. These subatomic particles are found in the nucleus of the atom, where they form nucleons.
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  • What are the properties of lipids?

    Q: What are the properties of lipids?

    A: Lipids are a diverse group of biological compounds, but they share the general property of being at least partially not water soluble and are composed of a series of hydrocarbon chains, ending with groups of bonded hydrogen and oxygen. Types of lipids include oils, fats, waxes, phospholipids and steroids. Lipids are crucial to all forms of life and are the main constituent of every cell membrane on Earth. They are also a major form of energy storage for animals and other organisms.
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  • What are the two most abundant elements dissolved in seawater?

    Q: What are the two most abundant elements dissolved in seawater?

    A: After hydrogen and oxygen, the two most abundant or "common" elements dissolved in seawater are sodium and chloride, which combine to form salt. The salinity of seawater is measured by grams of salt per liter of water, with a typical reading of approximately 35 grams per liter, or 35 percent.
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  • Why is evaporation a cooling process?

    Q: Why is evaporation a cooling process?

    A: Evaporation is a cooling process because when liquid turns to gas, it needs more energy, and so it has to take that energy from its surroundings. The energy is in the form of heat, and when the heat energy leaves with the evaporating liquid, the surroundings get cooler as a result. This has to do with the properties of the different states of matter.
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