Atoms & Molecules

A:

Rock salt melts ice by lowering the freezing point of the water. As the salt dissolves into the ice, it forms a solution with a much lower freezing point than pure water has. This causes the ice to melt unless the temperatures are about 15 F or lower, when the salt has little effect.

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  • What are some examples of non-conductive materials?

    Q: What are some examples of non-conductive materials?

    A: Glass, porcelain, plastic and rubber are examples of non-conductive materials. These materials are also known as insulators. They are used to stop the flow of electricity.
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  • What was the impact of Erwin Schrodinger's atomic cloud model?

    Q: What was the impact of Erwin Schrodinger's atomic cloud model?

    A: Erwin Schrodinger’s atomic cloud model revolutionized the way scientists viewed the structure of the atom. Building on the work of Neils Bohr, Schrodinger demonstrated that it was impossible to determine the exact location of the electron at a particular point in time. Instead, Schrodinger’s model showed that an electron could be found in some portion of an electron “cloud” at any specific point in time.
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  • What is the chemical formula for limestone?

    Q: What is the chemical formula for limestone?

    A: Pure limestone is made up of two component minerals: calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium carbonate. The chemical formula for calcium carbonate is CaCO3. The chemical formula for calcium-magnesium carbonate is CaMg(CO3)2.
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  • Where are the most reactive metals found in the periodic table?

    Q: Where are the most reactive metals found in the periodic table?

    A: The most reactive metals found on the periodic table are the alkali metals, which are lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium and francium. The alkali metals are found on the periodic table's s-block, because the outermost electron in these elements is in an s-orbital.
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  • What is the electron transport chain?

    Q: What is the electron transport chain?

    A: The electron transport chain is a chemical reaction where electrons are transferred from a high-energy molecule to a low-energy molecule. These reactions can be used to convert energy from sunlight in photosynthesis or extract energy from sugars in respiration. The electron transport chain is critical to the production of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is a source of energy for living things.
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  • What does an atom become when it gains or loses an electron?

    Q: What does an atom become when it gains or loses an electron?

    A: When an atom gains or loses an electron, it becomes an ion. Ions formed by the loss of an electron have a positive charge, and those formed by gaining an electron have a negative charge.
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  • Who tried to turn lead into gold?

    Q: Who tried to turn lead into gold?

    A: While many scientists tried to turn lead into gold, one of the most famous was Sir Isaac Newton. Other famous alchemists include Robert Boyle, Roger Bacon, Maria the Jewess and Zosimos.
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  • How much hydrogen is in the air?

    Q: How much hydrogen is in the air?

    A: Only 0.000053 percent of air is composed of hydrogen, making it the ninth most prevalent gas in the air. Nitrogen takes the lead, making up 78.084 percent of air, more than one million times more space than hydrogen. Oxygen also makes up a large part of air at 20.947 percent.
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  • What are the properties of lipids?

    Q: What are the properties of lipids?

    A: Lipids are a diverse group of biological compounds, but they share the general property of being at least partially not water soluble and are composed of a series of hydrocarbon chains, ending with groups of bonded hydrogen and oxygen. Types of lipids include oils, fats, waxes, phospholipids and steroids. Lipids are crucial to all forms of life and are the main constituent of every cell membrane on Earth. They are also a major form of energy storage for animals and other organisms.
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  • What is the most reactive group of metals?

    Q: What is the most reactive group of metals?

    A: The most reactive group of metals on the periodic table are the alkali metals. These metals are so reactive that they are not found naturally by themselves; they are found in nature as parts of compounds.
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  • What is the chemical name for sugar?

    Q: What is the chemical name for sugar?

    A: Sugar is the name of a group of organic compounds such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. Each of these compounds can be expressed by its own unique chemical formula, almost always as CnHnOn, where "n" is often a number between 3 and 7.
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  • Where was helium first found?

    Q: Where was helium first found?

    A: Helium was first discovered on the sun before it was ever found on Earth. During a total solar eclipse in 1868, a French Astronomer, Pierre-Jules-Cesar Janssen, noticed a unique yellow line in the sun's wavelength spectrum.
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  • What are the chemical and physical properties for silver?

    Q: What are the chemical and physical properties for silver?

    A: The physical properties of silver include that it is malleable, has a high degree of luster, is soft and has high density. Chemical properties of silver include that it doesn’t react with gases like oxygen and nitrogen.
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  • What elements are in chalk?

    Q: What elements are in chalk?

    A: Chalk, also known as calcium carbonate, is composed of the elements calcium, carbon and oxygen and has the chemical sign CaCO3. Calcium carbonate is found in layers all over the world and is the main component of snail shells, pearls and the skeletons of marine organisms known as coccolithophores.
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  • Why do atoms combine?

    Q: Why do atoms combine?

    A: Atoms combine together when the outermost shell, or valence shell, of electrons is not filled with two electrons (if there is only one shell) or eight electrons (if it has more than one shell). Atoms combine to fill the outermost shell and become stable compounds by either losing electrons to become ions or gaining electrons. Atoms can combine with similar elements or different elements.
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  • What is the basic unit of matter?

    Q: What is the basic unit of matter?

    A: An atom is the basic unit of matter. The atom is the basic building block of an element, and cannot be broken down further using any chemical means. An atom is made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
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  • Where are electrons located in the atom?

    Q: Where are electrons located in the atom?

    A: In most atoms, electrons occupy a zone exterior to the nucleus. Though electrons are often represented as particles in discreet orbits around the nucleus, they cannot be said to occupy a specific point in space. Rather, their position can be described as a wave function.
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  • What is made out of copper?

    Q: What is made out of copper?

    A: While humans use copper in many ways, one of the most important is for the piping systems in homes and businesses. Copper provides a long-lasting material that does not rust. It ensures that the water supply in a home remains safe for human consumption. Copper pipes carry the refrigerants in heating and cooling systems to keep homes comfortable.
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  • Where does oxygen come from?

    Q: Where does oxygen come from?

    A: Oxygen comes from many places, including air, water, rocks, plants, living organisms and even the atmosphere. Oxygen is produced in abundance by trees, plants and living organisms, including humans. It originates from the ground, the water and even the ozone layer of the atmosphere.
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  • Where does argon come from?

    Q: Where does argon come from?

    A: Argon occurs naturally in the Earth's atmosphere and people source it by taking the liquid air and putting it through fractionation. The total argon in the atmosphere is only about 0.94 percent volume, making it the most prevalent noble gas.
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  • Why does steel rust?

    Q: Why does steel rust?

    A: Steel rusts because of chemical reactions that occur when it comes into contact with water and oxygen. Iron, one component of steel, combines with water and oxygen to produce hydrated iron (III) oxide, which is the chemical that we call rust.
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