Atoms & Molecules

A:

CO is the molecular formula for carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas, and continuous exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide can be fatal to both humans and animals.

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  • What is the chemical name for sugar?

    Q: What is the chemical name for sugar?

    A: Sugar is the name of a group of organic compounds such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. Each of these compounds can be expressed by its own unique chemical formula, almost always as CnHnOn, where "n" is often a number between 3 and 7.
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  • What are the properties of glass?

    Q: What are the properties of glass?

    A: Glass is a solid, brittle and usually transparent material, explains HowStuffWorks. It is amorphous, which means it is not made of crystals. The properties of glass can be varied by changing the materials used in its manufacture and the proportions in which they are used.
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  • What is the most metallic element?

    Q: What is the most metallic element?

    A: The element with the strongest metallic properties in the world is francium, an artificial radioactive element. After francium, the next most metallic element is cesium.
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  • What is the smallest unit of an element?

    Q: What is the smallest unit of an element?

    A: The atom is the smallest unit of any element. The atom contains all the properties of the element and is made of a nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
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  • What elements are in chalk?

    Q: What elements are in chalk?

    A: Chalk, also known as calcium carbonate, is composed of the elements calcium, carbon and oxygen and has the chemical sign CaCO3. Calcium carbonate is found in layers all over the world and is the main component of snail shells, pearls and the skeletons of marine organisms known as coccolithophores.
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  • How many valence electrons does sulfur have?

    Q: How many valence electrons does sulfur have?

    A: Sulfur has six valence electrons, meaning that each atom of this element has six electrons in its outermost shell. The number of valence electrons that each element has can be predicted based on its location on the periodic table, though this only applies to neutral atoms. An element's main group number indicates how many valence electrons each atom of that element will have, and because sulfur is part of group six on the periodic table, this indicates that this element has six electrons in its outermost electron "shell."
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  • What makes an atom stable?

    Q: What makes an atom stable?

    A: An atom is stable because of a balanced nucleus that does not contain excess energy. If the forces between the protons and the neutrons in the nucleus are unbalanced, then the atom is unstable. Stable atoms retain their form indefinitely, while unstable atoms undergo radioactive decay. Most naturally occurring atoms are stable and do not decay.
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  • What are the chemical properties of lithium?

    Q: What are the chemical properties of lithium?

    A: Lithium is an element that is part of the alkali metal group. It has an atomic number of 3 and an atomic mass of 6.94. It is represented by the symbol Li.
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  • What are some causes of erosion?

    Q: What are some causes of erosion?

    A: Wind, water, volcanoes and glaciers cause natural erosion. Accelerated erosion is caused by unusual events, such as earthquakes, cyclones or human activity, like deforestation. The main forms of erosion are soil erosion, fluvial erosion, mass-movement erosion and stream bank erosion. Each form has a different effect on the landscape.
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  • What are some examples of non-conductive materials?

    Q: What are some examples of non-conductive materials?

    A: Glass, porcelain, plastic and rubber are examples of non-conductive materials. These materials are also known as insulators. They are used to stop the flow of electricity.
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  • Where is oxygen found?

    Q: Where is oxygen found?

    A: Oxygen is found throughout the universe. It is formed in the nuclear reactions that take place in stars. Much of the universe's oxygen is contained in water.
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  • Where was helium first found?

    Q: Where was helium first found?

    A: Helium was first discovered on the sun before it was ever found on Earth. During a total solar eclipse in 1868, a French Astronomer, Pierre-Jules-Cesar Janssen, noticed a unique yellow line in the sun's wavelength spectrum.
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  • What is the electron transport chain?

    Q: What is the electron transport chain?

    A: The electron transport chain is a chemical reaction where electrons are transferred from a high-energy molecule to a low-energy molecule. These reactions can be used to convert energy from sunlight in photosynthesis or extract energy from sugars in respiration. The electron transport chain is critical to the production of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is a source of energy for living things.
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  • How many protons and neutrons does aluminum have?

    Q: How many protons and neutrons does aluminum have?

    A: One atom of aluminum has 13 protons and 14 neutrons. Protons are the positively charged particles in an atom, while neutrons are subatomic particles that have no charge.
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  • What is the importance of beryllium?

    Q: What is the importance of beryllium?

    A: Beryllium has several roles in industry, including use as an X-ray window, a moderator in nuclear reactors, a part of several alloys and a component in ceramics. It is very light and has a relatively high melting point in its metallic form. Beryllium and its compounds are highly toxic to humans, despite having a sweet taste that earned it its original name, glucinium.
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  • What is the chemical formula for gold?

    Q: What is the chemical formula for gold?

    A: The chemical formula for gold is Au, which is its periodic table symbol. The symbol comes from the Latin word for gold, "aurum."
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  • What is the difference between atoms, ions and isotopes?

    Q: What is the difference between atoms, ions and isotopes?

    A: The difference between atoms, ions and isotopes is the number of subatomic particles. An atom is the basic building block of matter, the smallest molecule of an element that exists and that cannot be chemically divided by ordinary means. Each atom is comprised of protons, neutrons and electrons. In ions, the number of electrons differs, and in isotopes, the number of neutrons varies.
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  • Who discovered protons, electrons and neutrons?

    Q: Who discovered protons, electrons and neutrons?

    A: The discoveries of electrons, protons and neutrons were made by J. J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford and James Chadwick respectively. They were staggered over a period of 35 years.
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  • What are the properties of lipids?

    Q: What are the properties of lipids?

    A: Lipids are a diverse group of biological compounds, but they share the general property of being at least partially not water soluble and are composed of a series of hydrocarbon chains, ending with groups of bonded hydrogen and oxygen. Types of lipids include oils, fats, waxes, phospholipids and steroids. Lipids are crucial to all forms of life and are the main constituent of every cell membrane on Earth. They are also a major form of energy storage for animals and other organisms.
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  • What is the basic unit of matter?

    Q: What is the basic unit of matter?

    A: An atom is the basic unit of matter. The atom is the basic building block of an element, and cannot be broken down further using any chemical means. An atom is made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
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  • Why is helium important?

    Q: Why is helium important?

    A: Helium is important because it is widely used for its cooling properties, and it's particularly useful for manufacturing computer components. Helium is inert which prevents it from causing chemical reactions. It is also rare on Earth but common in the universe.
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