Atoms & Molecules

A:

Steel rusts because of chemical reactions that occur when it comes into contact with water and oxygen. Iron, one component of steel, combines with water and oxygen to produce hydrated iron (III) oxide, which is the chemical that we call rust.

See Full Answer
Filed Under:
  • What is the Lewis structure for ozone?

    Q: What is the Lewis structure for ozone?

    A: The Lewis dot structure for ozone is an O with four dots connected to an O with two dots and a plus sign by two lines. The equation ends with an O featuring six dots attached by a singular line to the other oxygen symbols.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the most reactive element?

    Q: What is the most reactive element?

    A: The most reactive element is fluorine. It is never found in its free form in nature. Because it has seven electrons in its outer energy level, fluorine is always on the lookout to find a single electron to give it a more stable configuration.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are atoms of the same element that have different masses called?

    Q: What are atoms of the same element that have different masses called?

    A: Atoms of the same element that have different masses are called isotopes. Different masses result when there are different numbers of neutrons. All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are the chemical properties of iron?

    Q: What are the chemical properties of iron?

    A: Iron, a metal, is the 26th element on the periodic table. Its atomic weight is 55.845, and it exists as a solid at room temperature. Iron melts at 2,800 degrees Fahrenheit and boils at 5,182 F. In its pure state, iron has a density of 7.874 grams per cubic centimeter.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the chemical formula for limestone?

    Q: What is the chemical formula for limestone?

    A: Pure limestone is made up of two component minerals: calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium carbonate. The chemical formula for calcium carbonate is CaCO3. The chemical formula for calcium-magnesium carbonate is CaMg(CO3)2.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are the chemical and physical properties for silver?

    Q: What are the chemical and physical properties for silver?

    A: The physical properties of silver include that it is malleable, has a high degree of luster, is soft and has high density. Chemical properties of silver include that it doesn’t react with gases like oxygen and nitrogen.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How many valence electrons does sulfur have?

    Q: How many valence electrons does sulfur have?

    A: Sulfur has six valence electrons, meaning that each atom of this element has six electrons in its outermost shell. The number of valence electrons that each element has can be predicted based on its location on the periodic table, though this only applies to neutral atoms. An element's main group number indicates how many valence electrons each atom of that element will have, and because sulfur is part of group six on the periodic table, this indicates that this element has six electrons in its outermost electron "shell."
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the importance of beryllium?

    Q: What is the importance of beryllium?

    A: Beryllium has several roles in industry, including use as an X-ray window, a moderator in nuclear reactors, a part of several alloys and a component in ceramics. It is very light and has a relatively high melting point in its metallic form. Beryllium and its compounds are highly toxic to humans, despite having a sweet taste that earned it its original name, glucinium.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • How many valence electrons does zirconium have?

    Q: How many valence electrons does zirconium have?

    A: Zirconium has four valance electrons, with two in the 4d level and two in the 5s level. This allows it to combine with other elements and ions in different configurations. It has valence charges of +2, +3 and +4.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the center of an atom called?

    Q: What is the center of an atom called?

    A: The center of an atom is called the atom's nucleus. This structure is usually composed of protons and neutrons though some atoms of hydrogen have only protons.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the most reactive group of metals?

    Q: What is the most reactive group of metals?

    A: The most reactive group of metals on the periodic table are the alkali metals. These metals are so reactive that they are not found naturally by themselves; they are found in nature as parts of compounds.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the chemical name for water?

    Q: What is the chemical name for water?

    A: The systematic names for water, as determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), are water and oxidane, although water is the more commonly used term by chemists. The traditional name has been retained for ease of communication.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Where was helium first found?

    Q: Where was helium first found?

    A: Helium was first discovered on the sun before it was ever found on Earth. During a total solar eclipse in 1868, a French Astronomer, Pierre-Jules-Cesar Janssen, noticed a unique yellow line in the sun's wavelength spectrum.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What did Ernest Rutherford discover about the atom?

    Q: What did Ernest Rutherford discover about the atom?

    A: Ernest Rutherford's famed Gold Foil Experiment of 1909 demonstrated that atoms were made up of a charged nucleus orbited by electrons. He published his findings in 1911 with a description of what he called the Rutherford model of the atom. While electrons had been described prior to this experiment, Rutherford was the first person to describe the existence of a small, charged atomic nucleus.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Why are ionic compounds soluble in water?

    Q: Why are ionic compounds soluble in water?

    A: Most ionic compounds are soluble in water because the electrostatic forces of the polar water molecules are stronger than the electrostatic forces keeping the ions together. There are several exceptions, however, where the electrostatic forces between the ions in an ionic compound are strong enough that the water molecules cannot separate them. Despite these few limitations, water's ability do dissolve ionic compounds is one of the major reasons it is so vital to life on Earth.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What are the properties of lipids?

    Q: What are the properties of lipids?

    A: Lipids are a diverse group of biological compounds, but they share the general property of being at least partially not water soluble and are composed of a series of hydrocarbon chains, ending with groups of bonded hydrogen and oxygen. Types of lipids include oils, fats, waxes, phospholipids and steroids. Lipids are crucial to all forms of life and are the main constituent of every cell membrane on Earth. They are also a major form of energy storage for animals and other organisms.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • Who discovered protons, electrons and neutrons?

    Q: Who discovered protons, electrons and neutrons?

    A: The discoveries of electrons, protons and neutrons were made by J. J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford and James Chadwick respectively. They were staggered over a period of 35 years.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the structure of the nucleus in a cell?

    Q: What is the structure of the nucleus in a cell?

    A: The structure of a nucleus contains a nuclear membrane, chromosomes, nucleolus and cytoplasm. It is a sphere-shaped organelle found in eukaryotic cells. The nucleus contains most of the cell’s genetic material and is responsible for controlling the cell’s growth, movement, reproduction and eating.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the latent heat of condensation?

    Q: What is the latent heat of condensation?

    A: The latent heat of condensation is the energy released when water vapor condenses into water droplets. The process is most readily observed in atmospheric clouds in thunderstorms. According to USA Today, a storm maintains its intensity as thunderclouds release this latent heat.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What is the basic unit of matter?

    Q: What is the basic unit of matter?

    A: An atom is the basic unit of matter. The atom is the basic building block of an element, and cannot be broken down further using any chemical means. An atom is made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under:
  • What makes an atom stable?

    Q: What makes an atom stable?

    A: An atom is stable because of a balanced nucleus that does not contain excess energy. If the forces between the protons and the neutrons in the nucleus are unbalanced, then the atom is unstable. Stable atoms retain their form indefinitely, while unstable atoms undergo radioactive decay. Most naturally occurring atoms are stable and do not decay.
    See Full Answer
    Filed Under: