Atoms & Molecules

A:

A single molecule of water consists of three atoms. H2O is built from a single atom of oxygen that is single-bonded with two atoms of hydrogen.

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  • Why do helium balloons float?

    Q: Why do helium balloons float?

    A: Helium balloons float because they are less dense than the surrounding air, which causes them to rise. Gravity acts on helium balloons the same way it does on the surrounding air; it has no effect on whether the balloon floats or not. It all comes down to relative densities.
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  • How many valence electrons does sulfur have?

    Q: How many valence electrons does sulfur have?

    A: Sulfur has six valence electrons, meaning that each atom of this element has six electrons in its outermost shell. The number of valence electrons that each element has can be predicted based on its location on the periodic table, though this only applies to neutral atoms. An element's main group number indicates how many valence electrons each atom of that element will have, and because sulfur is part of group six on the periodic table, this indicates that this element has six electrons in its outermost electron "shell."
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  • What is the most reactive element?

    Q: What is the most reactive element?

    A: The most reactive element is fluorine. It is never found in its free form in nature. Because it has seven electrons in its outer energy level, fluorine is always on the lookout to find a single electron to give it a more stable configuration.
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  • What is the softest metal?

    Q: What is the softest metal?

    A: Cesium is the softest metal on Earth. In fact, the metal is so soft, it is possible to cut it with a butter knife. Additionally, cesium melts at a relatively low temperature of 28.4 degrees Celsius (83.12 degrees Fahrenheit). Gold, silver and copper are other malleable metals considered "soft," but they are much harder than cesium.
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  • What is the chemical name for sugar?

    Q: What is the chemical name for sugar?

    A: Sugar is the name of a group of organic compounds such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. Each of these compounds can be expressed by its own unique chemical formula, almost always as CnHnOn, where "n" is often a number between 3 and 7.
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  • What is an electrically charged atom called?

    Q: What is an electrically charged atom called?

    A: An electrically charged atom is called an ion. Ions are formed when an atom either loses or gains an electron. Atoms tend to move toward a more stable electron configuration, which happens when an atom possesses an outer energy level filled with electrons.
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  • What is the chemical formula for marble?

    Q: What is the chemical formula for marble?

    A: Marble is made of calcium carbonate, CaCO3, which is also what limestone is made from. The only difference between limestone and marble is the crystalline structure. Limestone crystals are much smaller than that of marble, and limestone is much more porous.
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  • What is the electron configuration of arsenic?

    Q: What is the electron configuration of arsenic?

    A: The electron configuration of arsenic is [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p3. It exists in many forms. Allotropes of arsenic are yellow, black and gray, according to About.com. The gray allotrope is the most common form of elemental arsenic and a conductor of electricity. In the other colors, arsenic is a poor conductor of electricity.
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  • What is the chemical formula for limestone?

    Q: What is the chemical formula for limestone?

    A: Pure limestone is made up of two component minerals: calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium carbonate. The chemical formula for calcium carbonate is CaCO3. The chemical formula for calcium-magnesium carbonate is CaMg(CO3)2.
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  • What are the properties of glass?

    Q: What are the properties of glass?

    A: Glass is a solid, brittle and usually transparent material, explains HowStuffWorks. It is amorphous, which means it is not made of crystals. The properties of glass can be varied by changing the materials used in its manufacture and the proportions in which they are used.
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  • What is the most metallic element?

    Q: What is the most metallic element?

    A: The element with the strongest metallic properties in the world is francium, an artificial radioactive element. After francium, the next most metallic element is cesium.
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  • What is the chemical name for water?

    Q: What is the chemical name for water?

    A: The systematic names for water, as determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), are water and oxidane, although water is the more commonly used term by chemists. The traditional name has been retained for ease of communication.
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  • Why do atoms combine?

    Q: Why do atoms combine?

    A: Atoms combine together when the outermost shell, or valence shell, of electrons is not filled with two electrons (if there is only one shell) or eight electrons (if it has more than one shell). Atoms combine to fill the outermost shell and become stable compounds by either losing electrons to become ions or gaining electrons. Atoms can combine with similar elements or different elements.
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  • What is the center of an atom called?

    Q: What is the center of an atom called?

    A: The center of an atom is called the atom's nucleus. This structure is usually composed of protons and neutrons though some atoms of hydrogen have only protons.
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  • What are the chemical and physical properties for silver?

    Q: What are the chemical and physical properties for silver?

    A: The physical properties of silver include that it is malleable, has a high degree of luster, is soft and has high density. Chemical properties of silver include that it doesn’t react with gases like oxygen and nitrogen.
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  • What are the nine elements named after celestial bodies?

    Q: What are the nine elements named after celestial bodies?

    A: As of June 2014, the nine elements named after celestial bodies are Mercury, Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Cerium, Palladium, Tellurium, Helium and Selenium. These names cover planets, asteroids and stars. In addition, the names of elements have been derived from other areas, including cities, colors and scientists.
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  • What is molecular gastronomy?

    Q: What is molecular gastronomy?

    A: Molecular gastronomy is a culinary discipline that involves using scientific knowledge and chemical reactions to create food. It involves the utilization of centrifuges, liquid nitrogen, dehydrators, ultrasounds and other techniques and equipment to prepare food.
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  • What are two types of pure substances?

    Q: What are two types of pure substances?

    A: The two types of pure substances are elements and compounds. A pure substance is that which consists of only one component with distinct chemical and physical properties. Any substance with more than one component is called a mixture.
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  • What are some of the chemical properties of water?

    Q: What are some of the chemical properties of water?

    A: Water is expressed by the molecular formula H2O and has a molar mass of 18.01 grams per mole. It has a density of 1 gram per cubic centimeter. The melting point of water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit, while the boiling point is reached at 211.96 degrees Fahrenheit.
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  • What are some causes of erosion?

    Q: What are some causes of erosion?

    A: Wind, water, volcanoes and glaciers cause natural erosion. Accelerated erosion is caused by unusual events, such as earthquakes, cyclones or human activity, like deforestation. The main forms of erosion are soil erosion, fluvial erosion, mass-movement erosion and stream bank erosion. Each form has a different effect on the landscape.
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  • Where can platinum be found?

    Q: Where can platinum be found?

    A: Platinum is found in nature in the Earth's crust. It exists as alloys with several other metals, including palladium, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium and iridium. It belongs to group 10 in the Periodic Table of Elements.
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