Humans have many uses for sulfur, including the production of gunpowder. The Chinese first used sulfur in explosives and fireworks around 500 B.C. The Egyptians began using sulfur dioxide to bleach cotton materials over 4,000 years ago.
A:Argon occurs naturally in the Earth's atmosphere and people source it by taking the liquid air and putting it through fractionation. The total argon in the atmosphere is only about 0.94 percent volume, making it the most prevalent noble gas.
A:After hydrogen and oxygen, the two most abundant or "common" elements dissolved in seawater are sodium and chloride, which combine to form salt. The salinity of seawater is measured by grams of salt per liter of water, with a typical reading of approximately 35 grams per liter, or 35 percent.
A:Sugar is the name of a group of organic compounds such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. Each of these compounds can be expressed by its own unique chemical formula, almost always as CnHnOn, where "n" is often a number between 3 and 7.
A:Platinum is found in nature in the Earth's crust. It exists as alloys with several other metals, including palladium, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium and iridium. It belongs to group 10 in the Periodic Table of Elements.
A:The Lewis dot structure for ozone is an O with four dots connected to an O with two dots and a plus sign by two lines. The equation ends with an O featuring six dots attached by a singular line to the other oxygen symbols.
A:The most reactive metals found on the periodic table are the alkali metals, which are lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium and francium. The alkali metals are found on the periodic table's s-block, because the outermost electron in these elements is in an s-orbital.
A:Nitrogen is the major constituent of Earth's atmosphere, so it is, in a way, exactly as heavy as air. Though nitrogen makes up the bulk of the atmosphere by volume, almost 21 percent of the air is composed of molecular oxygen. To determine nitrogen's weight relative to air, it is important to determine whether the nitrogen in the atmosphere is lighter or heavier than the oxygen.
A:The systematic names for water, as determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), are water and oxidane, although water is the more commonly used term by chemists. The traditional name has been retained for ease of communication.
A:A compound is formed when two or more atoms are joined together. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element. A molecule is the smallest component of a compound that still has the properties of the compound.
A:An atom is stable because of a balanced nucleus that does not contain excess energy. If the forces between the protons and the neutrons in the nucleus are unbalanced, then the atom is unstable. Stable atoms retain their form indefinitely, while unstable atoms undergo radioactive decay. Most naturally occurring atoms are stable and do not decay.
A:In most atoms, electrons occupy a zone exterior to the nucleus. Though electrons are often represented as particles in discreet orbits around the nucleus, they cannot be said to occupy a specific point in space. Rather, their position can be described as a wave function.
A:Erwin Schrodinger’s atomic cloud model revolutionized the way scientists viewed the structure of the atom. Building on the work of Neils Bohr, Schrodinger demonstrated that it was impossible to determine the exact location of the electron at a particular point in time. Instead, Schrodinger’s model showed that an electron could be found in some portion of an electron “cloud” at any specific point in time.
A:When fructose and glucose are bonded together, they form sucrose, or table sugar. This carbohydrate is naturally present in all fruits and vegetables. Sugar cane and sugar beets are the main sources of sucrose processed and marketed to the public.
A:Atoms combine together when the outermost shell, or valence shell, of electrons is not filled with two electrons (if there is only one shell) or eight electrons (if it has more than one shell). Atoms combine to fill the outermost shell and become stable compounds by either losing electrons to become ions or gaining electrons. Atoms can combine with similar elements or different elements.
A:Steel rusts because of chemical reactions that occur when it comes into contact with water and oxygen. Iron, one component of steel, combines with water and oxygen to produce hydrated iron (III) oxide, which is the chemical that we call rust.
A:Pure limestone is made up of two component minerals: calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium carbonate. The chemical formula for calcium carbonate is CaCO3. The chemical formula for calcium-magnesium carbonate is CaMg(CO3)2.
A:Helium is important because it is widely used for its cooling properties, and it's particularly useful for manufacturing computer components. Helium is inert which prevents it from causing chemical reactions. It is also rare on Earth but common in the universe.