Acids & Bases

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According to the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR), changes in water's pH levels are caused by the dumping of certain chemicals into water systems. Dumping may be done by communities, industries or individuals.

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  • How are acids and bases different?

    Q: How are acids and bases different?

    A: Acids and bases differ in chemical structure and reactions, pH level and taste. When interacting with phenolphthalein and litmus, each changes to a different color. Substances with a pH greater than seven are basic and those with a pH less than seven are acidic. Acidic substances taste sour, while basic substances are bitter.
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  • What are the chemical properties of copper?

    Q: What are the chemical properties of copper?

    A: Copper is a pliable metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity capabilities. It can be identified on the periodic table of elements as Cu and as atomic number 29. Copper and its alloys have been used for thousands of years for various purposes.
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  • What is the pH of lemon juice?

    Q: What is the pH of lemon juice?

    A: The pH level of lemon juice is about 2.0. Anything below 7 for pH levels means that it is an acid. Lemon juice is a strong acid. Lemons are strong in acidity because they are made of citrus juice and ascorbic acid.
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  • Is saliva an acid or a base?

    Q: Is saliva an acid or a base?

    A: Depending on dietary and health factors, saliva can be an acid, a base or neutral. If the body operates within a normal range, the pH level of saliva stays between 6.5 and 6.8, which makes it slightly acidic.
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  • What is the pH level of lemon juice?

    Q: What is the pH level of lemon juice?

    A: The pH level of lemon juice is 2.0. The pH scale is used to measure how acidic or alkaline/base a solution is. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14; a pH of 7 is neutral, a pH lower than 7 is acidic and higher than 7 is alkaline.
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  • What is the pH of apple juice?

    Q: What is the pH of apple juice?

    A: The pH of apple juice ranges from 3.35 to 4, which indicates it is on the acidic side of the pH scale. Values on the pH scale that are less than 7 indicate acidity.
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  • What does stomach acid do?

    Q: What does stomach acid do?

    A: Stomach acid breaks down food so that it is more easily absorbed by the body, according to MedicineNet. Muscles in the wall of the stomach churn the food, stomach acid and enzymes together to create a thick liquid, known as chyme, that moves into the small intestine for further digestion.
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  • What is the pH of sodium hydroxide?

    Q: What is the pH of sodium hydroxide?

    A: The pH of concentrated sodium hydroxide is 14. It is one of the most strongly basic substances that exists; however, it is rarely encountered in its fully concentrated form, and its pH in solution depends on its concentration.
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  • What color does litmus paper turn in acid?

    Q: What color does litmus paper turn in acid?

    A: When blue litmus paper is dipped in an acid, it turns red; when red litmus paper is dipped in an acid, it just appears to get wet. Alkacid paper, which is a universal indicator, turns orange or red when it is reacting to an acid, with a redder color indicating a lower pH and a stronger level of acidity.
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  • Is HCN a strong acid?

    Q: Is HCN a strong acid?

    A: Hydrogen cyanide, or HCN, is not a strong acid. In solution, hydrogen cyanide is a weak acid that is mostly HCN with minimal amounts of hydronium and cyanide ionized. A weak acid partially ionizes in solution. The solution moves backwards and forwards to create the products and reactants.
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  • What is the importance of acids and bases?

    Q: What is the importance of acids and bases?

    A: Acids are used in industries to manufacture fertilizers, paints, dyes and man-made fibers, while bases are used in the production of fabrics, cleaning agents and paper. In nutrition, diluted acids are used to dress salads and vegetables, giving food a distinctive taste. For example, vinegar contains 3 percent acetic acid. Citrus fruits have citric acid. Aspirin contains acetylsalicylic acid, and wine has tartaric acid.
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  • What are the uses of ether?

    Q: What are the uses of ether?

    A: Ether is used as a mild anesthetic and as a solvent in industries. It is an organic compound that has sweet smell. Ether is colorless and evaporates very quickly when exposed to air. It catches fire very easily and needs to be handled with care.
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  • What is meant when a system has reached equilibrium?

    Q: What is meant when a system has reached equilibrium?

    A: In chemistry, the term equilibrium refers to a chemical reaction occurring in which there is no net change in the concentration of reactants and products. The quantities of products and reactants achieve a constant ratio.
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  • What is a solvent?

    Q: What is a solvent?

    A: A solvent is the substance into which another substance dissolves to form a solution. It is the largest part of the solution. Its counterpart, the solute, is the part that dissolves within the solvent.
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  • Why is red cabbage juice a good indicator of pH?

    Q: Why is red cabbage juice a good indicator of pH?

    A: Red cabbage juice is a good indicator of pH because it contains flavin, a pigment molecule that changes colors according to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The juice is prepared by soaking chopped red cabbage in boiling water for at least 10 minutes and then filtering the solution to eliminate any plant material.
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  • What is the pH level of milk?

    Q: What is the pH level of milk?

    A: The pH level of milk is about 6. In comparison, water's pH level is 7. That is a significant difference because each level is 10 times different --either more or less-- than the level next to it.
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  • What are some household alkalis?

    Q: What are some household alkalis?

    A: Common household alkalis include indigestion tablets (antacids), bleach, toothpaste, baking powder, cream cleaner, oven cleaner, metal polish and alkaline batteries. They can have moderate to severe levels of toxicity.
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  • What is the pH level of Coke?

    Q: What is the pH level of Coke?

    A: The pH of Coke products ranges from 2.5 to 4.2. The most acidic Coke product is Coke Classic, which has a pH of 2.5. These beverages contain phosphoric acid, an additive used to enhance the flavor of soft drinks.
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  • What is the pH in your mouth?

    Q: What is the pH in your mouth?

    A: The pH of the mouth varies depending on the person. A healthy pH is above 7, and damage to teeth can occur if the pH is below 6.5.
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  • What is the pH level of hydrochloric acid?

    Q: What is the pH level of hydrochloric acid?

    A: The pH of hydrochloric acid is 0. This reading is taken from a solution of 1 mole of hydrochloric acid. A less concentrated solution of the acid, such as a 0.5-mole solution, has a higher pH, meaning it would be less acidic.
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  • What is the pH of acetone?

    Q: What is the pH of acetone?

    A: Acetone (C3H6O) has a pH of 7, which means that the substance, on its own, is neither an acid nor a base. This pH value, which is about the same as pure water, shows that acetone is relatively neutral. The organic compound is also known by the IUPAC name of propanone.
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