There are three types of symbiotic relationships that occur in the desert: mutualism, commensalism and parasitism. Examples are, respectively, yucca plants and yucca moths, dung beetles and the dung of other animals, and fleas and their hosts.Continue Reading
Symbiotic mutualism occurs when both parties benefit from the interaction. In the desert, the yucca moth and yucca plant are mutually symbiotic. The yucca moth pollinates the yucca plant by carrying its pollen from plant to plant; in return, the yucca moth lays eggs and lives in the yucca plant.
Commensalism describes a symbiotic interaction in which one party benefits and the other is unaffected. An example is dung beetles, which live off the dung produced by other animals. These dung-producing animals neither benefit nor are harmed by the dung beetles.
The last type of symbiosis is parasitism, in which one party gains through the interaction and the other is harmed. In the desert, fleas live on coyotes as parasites, thereby gaining both a food source and a home. This interaction is parasitic because the fleas are harming the coyote's health. Another example of parasitism is the praying mantis and the wasp. The wasp lays its eggs inside the praying mantis's eggs, and when the wasp larvae hatch, they feed on the praying mantis eggs.Learn more about Biology
Symbiotic relationships on the tundra include nematode parasitism on caribou, bacterial mutualism with pitcher plants and nematode commensalism on black flies. Symbiosis is long-term dependence of one species on another classified by the effect on the host. Parasitism causes injury, commensalism has no apparent effect and mutualism provides benefits.Full Answer >
An example of mutualism in the desert is the relationship between the desert mistletoe plant and the Phainopepla bird. As the bird eats the berries produced by the desert mistletoe, it passes undigested seeds. This ensures the survival of the desert mistletoe.Full Answer >
Examples of limiting factors include competition, parasitism, predation, disease, abnormal weather patterns, natural calamities, seasonal cycles and human activities. In terms of population growth, limiting factors can be classified into density-dependent factors and density-independent factors.Full Answer >
Two common examples of mutualism in the tundra biome include the beneficial coexistence between the alga and the fungus in a lichen and the reciprocal partnership between tundra swans and sago pondweed. Mutualism is a type of symbiotic relationship wherein two or several different species derive shared benefits by living in close proximity with one another.Full Answer >