Soluble substances are those that easily dissolve in a solvent, such as water, and include sugar, salt, alcohol and some dishwashing detergents. In chemistry, solubility of a substance is a quantitative term that refers to the amount of substance that can dissolve in a given volume of a solvent. A substance is considered soluble if more than 0.1 gram of that substance can dissolve in 100 ml of solvent.
The substance being dissolved is referred to as a solute, while the substance that dissolves the solute is a solvent. The resulting mixture of a solvent and a solute is called a solution. Water is considered to be a universal solvent because of its ability to dissolve many substances. Other liquids, such as benzene, gasoline and ethanol, can also be used in dissolving substances. Sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate, potassium chloride, potassium bromide, and sodium nitrate are also substances that are soluble in water.
Solubility is highly determined by the physical and chemical properties of a substance. In addition, solubility of a solute in a solvent is influenced by the balance of molecular forces between the two substances and the entropy change that follows solvation. This balance is influenced by factors such as temperature and pressure, which can alter solubility. The presence of other materials in the solvent, such as complex-forming anions, can also affect solubility, as can the excess or deficiency of a common ion in the solution.