Some examples of simple proteins are histones, globulins, glutelins, albuminoids and albumins. When these proteins are broken down chemically with water via the process of hydrolysis, they usually break down into only amino acids. Occasionally, they are also found to contain small carbohydrate compounds.
Histones are the proteins that assist DNA in condensing so it can fit inside the nucleus in the form of chromosomes. Certain histones serve as spool-like structures that DNA coils around. These proteins have a positive charge, which enables them to be attracted to the negatively charged DNA.
Globulins are simple proteins consisting of antibodies called gamma globulins, enzymes and transport proteins. Low globulin levels on blood tests are associated with conditions such as nephrosis, liver dysfunction and acute hemolytic anemia. Conversely, elevated globulin levels can signal a wide range of conditions, some of which include parasitic infections, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney dysfunction, leukemia, and some bacterial and viral infections.
Unlike simple proteins, conjugated proteins contain both amino acids and non-protein components. Nucleoproteins, phosphoproteins, lecithoproteins and glycoproteins are a few examples of conjugated proteins. Meanwhile, a derived protein is formed through the physical or chemical alteration of either a simple or a conjugated protein. Peptides and denatured proteins fall under this category of derived proteins.