DNA sequencing by geneticists, physicists searching for new particles, biologists studying animal behavior, and astronomers searching for distant galaxies and extraterrestrial life are examples of modern science topics. Global climate change, seismology and genetically modified organisms are among other topics that scientists research.
Modern DNA studies build upon the Human Genome Study, which concluded in 2003. This study built on experiments by scientists since Alfred Sturtevant's 1911 studies on fruit flies.
Modern scientists build upon the research of earlier eras, specialize more than previous scientists, and collaborate with researchers across disciplines. For example, a 2003 study on European desertification involved biologists, mathematicians, archaeologists and sociologists, as well as other disciplines. Early naturalists such as Charles Darwin were able to study a wide range of topics such as geology, evolutionary history and soil ecology, whereas modern scientists specialize in narrow topics such as ancient climate changes in aquatic ecosystems.